The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
The Chinese have two different concepts of a copy. Fangzhipin . . . are imitations where the difference from the original is obvious. These are small models or copies that can be purchased in a museum shop, for example. The second concept for a copy is fuzhipin . . . They are exact reproductions of the original, which, for the Chinese, are of equal value to the original. It has absolutely no negative connotations. The discrepancy with regard to the understanding of what a copy is has often led to misunderstandings and arguments between China and Western museums. The Chinese often send copies abroad instead of originals, in the firm belief that they are not essentially different from the originals. The rejection that then comes from the Western museums is perceived by the Chinese as an insult. . . .
The Far Eastern notion of identity is also very confusing to the Western observer. The Ise Grand Shrine [in Japan] is 1,300 years old for the millions of Japanese people who go there on pilgrimage every year. But in reality this temple complex is completely rebuilt from scratch every 20 years. . . .
The cathedral of Freiburg Minster in southwest Germany is covered in scaffolding almost all year round. The sandstone from which it is built is a very soft, porous material that does not withstand natural erosion by rain and wind. After a while, it crumbles. As a result, the cathedral is continually being examined for damage, and eroded stones are replaced. And in the cathedral's dedicated workshop, copies of the damaged sandstone figures are constantly being produced. Of course, attempts are made to preserve the stones from the Middle Ages for as long as possible. But at some point they, too, are removed and replaced with new stones.
Fundamentally, this is the same operation as with the Japanese shrine, except in this case the production of a replica takes place very slowly and over long periods of time. . . . In the field of art as well, the idea of an unassailable original developed historically in the Western world. Back in the 17th century [in the West], excavated artworks from antiquity were treated quite differently from today. They were not restored in a way that was faithful to the original. Instead, there was massive intervention in these works, changing their appearance. . . .
It is probably this intellectual position that explains why Asians have far fewer scruples about cloning than Europeans. The South Korean cloning researcher Hwang Woo-suk, who attracted worldwide attention with his cloning experiments in 2004, is a Buddhist. He found a great deal of support and followers among Buddhists, while Christians called for a ban on human cloning. . . . Hwang legitimised his cloning experiments with his religious affiliation: 'I am Buddhist, and I have no philosophical problem with cloning. And as you know, the basis of Buddhism is that life is recycled through reincarnation. In some ways, I think, therapeutic cloning restarts the circle of life.'
Which one of the following scenarios is unlikely to follow from the arguments in the passage?
A 21st century Christian scientist is likely to oppose cloning because of his philosophical orientation.
A 17th century British painter would have no problem adding personal touches when restoring an ancient Roman painting.
A 17th century French artist who adhered to a Christian worldview would need to be completely true to the original intent of a painting when restoring it.
A 20th century Japanese Buddhist monk would value a reconstructed shrine as the original.
The value that the modern West assigns to " an unassailable original" has resulted in all of the following EXCEPT:
it allows regular employment for certain craftsmen.
it discourages them from carrying out human cloning.
it discourages them from making interventions in ancient art.
it discourages them from simultaneous displays of multiple copies of a painting.
Which one of the following statements does not correctly express the similarity between the Ise Grand Shrine and the cathedral of Freiburg Minster?
Both can be regarded as very old structures.
Both are continually undergoing restoration.
Both were built as places of worship.
Both will one day be completely rebuilt.
Based on the passage, which one of the following copies would a Chinese museum be unlikely to consider as having less value than the original?
Pablo Picasso's painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting, bearing Picasso's signature.
Pablo Picasso's miniaturised, but otherwise faithful and accurate painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting.
Pablo Picasso's photograph of Vincent van Gogh's original painting, printed to exactly the same scale.
Pablo Picasso's painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting, identical in every respect.
CAT 2022 RC passage with solution
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