# CAT 2019 VARC Question Paper with Solutions (Slot 1)

RC PASSAGE

As defined by the geographer Yi-Fu Tuan, topophilia is the affective bond between people and place. His 1974 book set forth a wide-ranging exploration of how the emotive ties with the material environment vary greatly from person to person and in intensity, subtlety, and mode of expression. Factors influencing one’s depth of response to the environment include cultural background, gender, race, and historical circumstance, and Tuan also argued that there is a biological and sensory element. Topophilia might not be the strongest of human emotions— indeed, many people feel utterly indifferent toward the environments that shape their lives— but when activated it has the power to elevate a place to become the carrier of emotionally charged events or to be perceived as a symbol.

Aesthetic appreciation is one way in which people respond to the environment. A brilliantly colored rainbow after gloomy afternoon showers, a busy city street alive with human interaction—one might experience the beauty of such landscapes that had seemed quite ordinary only moments before or that are being newly discovered. This is quite the opposite of a second topophilic bond, namely that of the acquired taste for certain landscapes and places that one knows well. When a place is home, or when a space has become the locus of memories or the means of gaining a livelihood, it frequently evokes a deeper set of attachments than those predicated purely on the visual. A third response to the environment also depends on the human senses but may be tactile and olfactory, namely a delight in the feel and smell of air, water, and the earth.

Topophilia—and its very close conceptual twin, sense of place—is an experience that, however elusive, has inspired recent architects and planners. Most notably, new urbanism seeks to counter the perceived placelessness of modern suburbs and the decline of central cities through neo-traditional design motifs. Although motivated by good intentions, such attempts to create places rich in meaning are perhaps bound to disappoint. As Tuan noted, purely aesthetic responses often are suddenly revealed, but their intensity rarely is longlasting. Topophilia is difficult to design for and impossible to quantify, and its most articulate interpreters have been self-reflective philosophers such as Henry David Thoreau, evoking a marvelously intricate sense of place at Walden Pond, and Tuan, describing his deep affinity for the desert.

Topophilia connotes a positive relationship, but it often is useful to explore the darker affiliations between people and place. Patriotism, literally meaning the love of one’s terra patria or homeland, has long been cultivated by governing elites for a range of nationalist projects, including war preparation and ethnic cleansing. Residents of upscale residential developments have disclosed how important it is to maintain their community’s distinct identity, often by casting themselves in a superior social position and by reinforcing class and racial differences. And just as a beloved landscape is suddenly revealed, so too may landscapes of fear cast a dark shadow over a place that makes one feel a sense of dread or anxiety—or topophobia.

Question 1:
The word “topophobia” in the passage is used:
1. to represent a feeling of dread towards particular spaces and places.
2. to signify the fear of studying the complex discipline of topography.
3. as a metaphor expressing the failure of the homeland to accommodate non-citizens.
4. to signify feelings of fear or anxiety towards topophilic people.
Option: 1

This passage was the simplest of all the passages. The answer to the first question can be found in the passage itself in the last sentence, where the author introduces the idea of ‘topophobia’.

“And just as a beloved landscape is suddenly revealed, so too may landscapes of fear cast a dark shadow over a place that makes one feel a sense of dread or anxiety—or topophobia.”

Option 1 is thus the right choice.

Question 2:
Which of the following statements, if true, could be seen as not contradicting the arguments in the passage?
1. The most important, even fundamental, response to our environment is our tactile and olfactory response.
2. Generally speaking, in a given culture, the ties of the people to their environment vary little in significance or intensity.
3. Patriotism, usually seen as a positive feeling, is presented by the author as a darker form of topophilia.
4. New Urbanism succeeded in those designs where architects collaborated with their clients.
Option: 3

This is a slightly difficult question. We have to read the options carefully and look for the one that is not against what the author has to say, the ones that are against what the author has to say, will contradict the author’s argument. But we have to mark the choice that is not contradicting what the author has to say.’

Option 1 contradicts because the author says that olfactory response is the third most important factor, while the option says that it is the most important factor.

Option 2 also can be ruled out because the author says in the first paragraph: the emotive ties with the material environment vary greatly from person to person and in intensity, subtlety, and mode of expression. The author says ‘vary greatly’, while the option says ‘vary little’

Option 3 can be seen in the last paragraph, and is parallel to what the author has to say. This is not contradicting the author’s argument, and hence it is the right choice.

Option 4 can be ruled out because it too goes against what the author has to say.

“Most notably, new urbanism seeks to counter the perceived placelessness of modern suburbs and the decline of central cities through neo-traditional design motifs. Although motivated by good intentions, such attempts to create places rich in meaning are perhaps bound to disappoint”

The author says the New Urbanism is bound to disappoint, but the options says that it is successful as the client’s demand for it.

Question 3:
In the last paragraph, the author uses the example of “Residents of upscale residential developments” to illustrate the:
1. introduction of nationalist projects by such elites to produce a sense of dread or topophobia.
2. social exclusivism practised by such residents in order to enforce a sense of racial or class superiority.
3. manner in which environments are designed to minimise the social exclusion of their clientele.
4. sensitive response to race and class problems in upscale residential developments.
Option: 2

This question can be answered only by understanding the context in which the phrase has come. It reads as follows:

“Residents of upscale residential developments have disclosed how important it is to maintain their community’s distinct identity, often by casting themselves in a superior social position and by reinforcing class and racial differences. “

Option 2 becomes the right answer, without any doubt. This was a very simple question.

Question 4:
Which one of the following best captures the meaning of the statement, “Topophilia is difficult to design for and impossible to quantify . . .”?
1. People’s responses to their environment are usually subjective and so cannot be rendered in design.
2. The deep anomie of modern urbanisation led to new urbanism’s intricate sense of place.
3. Architects have to objectively quantify spaces and hence cannot be topophilic.
4. Philosopher-architects are uniquely suited to develop topophilic design.
Option: 1

We can answer the question by reading the sentence that follows this sentence. Let’s see what follows this sentence in the passage.

“Topophilia is difficult to design for and impossible to quantify, and its most articulate interpreters have been self-reflective philosophers such as Henry David Thoreau, evoking a marvelously intricate sense of place at Walden Pond, and Tuan, describing his deep affinity for the desert.”

Henry David liked the pond, while Tuan liked the desert. Thus there is subjectiveness. Option 1 is the right choice.

Question 5:
Which one of the following comes closest in meaning to the author’s understanding of topophilia?
1. The tendency of many cultures to represent their land as “motherland” or “fatherland” may be seen as an expression of their topophilia
2. Nomadic societies are known to have the least affinity for the lands through which they traverse because they tend to be topophobic.
3. The French are not overly patriotic, but they will refuse to use English as far as possible, even when they know it well.
4. Scientists have found that most creatures, including humans, are either born with or cultivate a strong sense of topography.
Option: 1

Topophilia means love for a particular place. The choice must reflect love. Option 2 goes out because in the option we have "least affinity for the place". Option 3 says that the French are not patriotic, so it too goes out because topophilia will bring patriotism. Topography has nothing to do with love, topography means understanding of the topology of a particular place. Thus only 1 fits the meaning of topophilia.

RC PASSAGE

"Free of the taint of manufacture" – that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the "anti-scrape", or an anticapitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk – who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends – has always been contested territory. . . .

In our own time, though, the word "folk" . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet – as newspaper columns periodically rejoice – folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic "shabby chic", containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain's heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music's origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . .

[Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. "One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like" is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Holst, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.

For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism's dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock's own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today's metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .

Question 6:
All of the following are causes for plurality and diversity within the British folk tradition EXCEPT:
1. paradoxically, folk forms are both popular and unpopular.
2. that British folk continues to have traces of pagan influence from the dark ages.
3. that British folk forms can be traced to the remote past of the country.
4. the fluidity of folk forms owing to their history of oral mode of transmission.
Option: 1

This question can be answered just by reading and understanding the options carefully.

Diversity will surely come if there is long history of past influence. Both option 1 and option 2 support that. The fluidity of folk forms means adaptability of folk forms, or flexibility of folk forms. Thus even 4 justifies the idea of diversity.

Option 1 goes out because being popular or unpopular has nothing to do with diversity.

Question 7:
Which of the following statements about folk revivalism of the 1940s and 1960s cannot be inferred from the passage?
1. Even though it led to folk-rock’s golden age, it wasn’t entirely free from critique.
2. Electrification of music would not have happened without the influence of rock music.
3. Freedom and rebellion were popular themes during the second wave of folk revivalism.
4. It reinforced Cecil Sharp’s observation about folk’s constant transformation.
Option: 2

The question asks us to pick a choice that cannot be inferred from the passage. Option 2 certainly cannot be inferred because this is what the passage says:

“In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms.”

The author says that electrification, however, comes in many forms; in other words, electrification need not always come through rock along. It might come from any other form of music as well. Thus option 2 surely cannot be inferred.

Option 4 can be inferred because Cecil Sharp talks about folk music’s ability to adapt. The music of 40s and 60s demonstrates that adaptation.

The passage says that in the late 1960s, Purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms, this suggests that it had critics. The purists were those critics. This supports choice 1

“…the lyrical freedom of Bob Dylan…” this phrase comes in support of choice 3

Question 8:
The author says that folk “may often appear a cosy, fossilised form” because:
1. it has been arrogated for various political and cultural purposes.
2. folk is a sonic “shabby chic” with an antique veneer.
3. the notion of folk has led to several debates and disagreements.
4. of its nostalgic association with a pre-industrial past.
Option: 4

something that is fossilized belongs to or reminds of the past. The only correct choice that can be convincingly picked is choice 4. Rest all don’t justify the word ‘fossilised’

Question 9:
The primary purpose of the reference to William Morris and his floral prints is to show:
1. the pervasive influence of folk on contemporary art, culture, and fashion.
2. that what was once derided as genteel is now considered revolutionary.
3. that what is once regarded as radical in folk, can later be seen as conformist.
4. that despite its archaic origins, folk continues to remain a popular tradition.
Option: 3

Our team could not come up with the correct explanation for this question, though by elimination and by understanding the context, we can arrive at option 3 as the right choice.

Question 10:
At a conference on folk forms, the author of the passage is least likely to agree with which one of the following views?
1. The power of folk resides in its contradictory ability to influence and be influenced by the present while remaining rooted in the past.
2. Folk forms, despite their archaic origins, remain intellectually relevant in contemporary times.
3. Folk forms, in their ability to constantly adapt to the changing world, exhibit an unusual poise and homogeneity with each change.
4. The plurality and democratising impulse of folk forms emanate from the improvisation that its practitioners bring to it.
Option: 3

Right across the passage the author appreciates how folk forms have been used my modern musicians, and appreciates the fusion of folk with other forms of music.

Option 1 supports the author’s opinion by asserting that folk forms have the ability to influence and be influenced by. The author will agree with this statement.

Option 2 also supports the author’s contention that folk forms were relevant and are relevant even today

Option 4 also supports the author’s point and therefore the author is likely to agree with this point

Option 3 is the right choice because it says that folk music exhibit unusual homogeneity. If there is homogeneity, then the idea of the adapting and infusing with other kinds of music is not valid. Thus the author will not agree with this. The author would rather say that folk music, by influencing and by getting influenced, becomes heterogeneous and not homogenous. Heterogeneous means mixed with varieties, while homogenous means comprising things of the same type.

RC PASSAGE

Contemporary internet shopping conjures a perfect storm of choice anxiety. Research has consistently held that people who are presented with a few options make better, easier decisions than those presented with many. . . . Helping consumers figure out what to buy amid an endless sea of choice online has become a cottage industry unto itself. Many brands and retailers now wield marketing buzzwords such as curation, differentiation, and discovery as they attempt to sell an assortment of stuff targeted to their ideal customer. Companies find such shoppers through the data gold mine of digital advertising, which can catalog people by gender, income level, personal interests, and more. Since Americans have lost the ability to sort through the sheer volume of the consumer choices available to them, a ghost now has to be in the retail machine, whether it’s an algorithm, an influencer, or some snazzy ad tech to help a product follow you around the internet. Indeed, choice fatigue is one reason so many people gravitate toward lifestyle influencers on Instagram—the relentlessly chic young moms and perpetually vacationing 20-somethings—who present an aspirational worldview, and then recommend the products and services that help achieve it. . . .

For a relatively new class of consumer-products start-ups, there’s another method entirely. Instead of making sense of a sea of existing stuff, these companies claim to disrupt stuff as Americans know it. Casper (mattresses), Glossier (makeup), Away (suitcases), and many others have sprouted up to offer consumers freedom from choice: The companies have a few aesthetically pleasing and supposedly highly functional options, usually at mid-range prices. They’re selling nice things, but maybe more importantly, they’re selling a confidence in those things, and an ability to opt out of the stuff rat race. . . .

One-thousand-dollar mattresses and $300 suitcases might solve choice anxiety for a certain tier of consumer, but the companies that sell them, along with those that attempt to massage the larger stuff economy into something navigable, are still just working within a consumer market that’s broken in systemic ways. The presence of so much stuff in America might be more valuable if it were more evenly distributed, but stuff’s creators tend to focus their energy on those who already have plenty. As options have expanded for people with disposable income, the opportunity to buy even basic things such as fresh food or quality diapers has contracted for much of America’s lower classes. For start-ups that promise accessible simplicity, their very structure still might eventually push them toward overwhelming variety. Most of these companies are based on hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital, the investors of which tend to expect a steep growth rate that can’t be achieved by selling one great mattress or one great sneaker. Casper has expanded into bedroom furniture and bed linens. Glossier, after years of marketing itself as no-makeup makeup that requires little skill to apply, recently launched a full line of glittering color cosmetics. There may be no way to opt out of stuff by buying into the right thing. Question 11: Which one of the following best sums up the overall purpose of the examples of Casper and Glossier in the passage? 1. They are facilitating a uniform distribution of commodities in the market. 2. They might transform into what they were exceptions to. 3. They are exceptions to a dominant trend in consumer markets. 4. They are increasing the purchasing power of poor Americans. Option: 2 We can correctly mark the answer by reading three different parts of the paragraphs and combine them together. “Casper (mattresses), Glossier (makeup), Away (suitcases), and many others have sprouted up to offer consumers freedom from choice” “For start-ups that promise accessible simplicity, their very structure still might eventually push them toward overwhelming variety.” “Casper has expanded into bedroom furniture and bed linens. Glossier, after years of marketing itself as no-makeup makeup that requires little skill to apply, recently launched a full line of glittering color cosmetics.” The two companies started by offering simplicity in choices, but they might eventually push to overwhelming variety…Casper and Glossier both have done that. Thus 2 is the right choice. Question 12: A new food brand plans to launch a series of products in the American market. Which of the following product plans is most likely to be supported by the author of the passage? 1. A range of 25 products priced between$10 and $25. 2. A range of 10 products priced between$5 and $10. 3. A range of 10 products priced between$10 and $25. 4. A range of 25 products priced between$5 and \$10.
Option: 2

The author is in favour of two things: not too much variety, and mid-range pricing. Choice 2 and 3 provide less variety and out of the two only choice 2 provides mid-range pricing. Thus 2 is the right choice.

The companies have a few aesthetically pleasing and supposedly highly functional options, usually at mid-range prices”. The author has praised this in the passage.

Question 13:
Based on the passage, all of the following can be inferred about consumer behavior EXCEPT that:
1. too many options have made it difficult for consumers to trust products.
2. consumers tend to prefer products by start-ups over those by established companies.
3. having too many product options can be overwhelming for consumers.
4. consumers are susceptible to marketing images that they see on social media.
Option: 2

Since this is an inference question, we have to derive the answer from what is given.

The passage says:

“Casper (mattresses), Glossier (makeup), Away (suitcases), and many others have sprouted up to offer consumers freedom from choice: The companies have a few aesthetically pleasing and supposedly highly functional options, usually at mid-range prices.

They’re selling nice things, but maybe more importantly, they’re selling a confidence in those things, and an ability to opt out of the stuff rat race. . . .”

Thus we know that customers prefer fewer choices, and that in turn builds trust or confidence. Thus 1 and 3 can be inferred and will not be the right choice, as we have to pick the one that cannot be inferred.

“choice fatigue is one reason so many people gravitate toward lifestyle influencers on Instagram—the relentlessly chic young moms and perpetually vacationing 20-somethings—who present an aspirational worldview, and then recommend the products and services that help achieve it. . . .”

This extract from the passage suggests that customers are susceptible (influenced by) to marketing images on the social media (Instagram)

Choice 2 is the right answer because we have no evidence for it.

Question 14:
All of the following, IF TRUE, would weaken the author’s claims EXCEPT:
1. product options increased market competition, bringing down the prices of commodities, which, in turn, increased purchasing power of the poor.
2. the annual sales growth of companies with fewer product options were higher than that of companies which curated their products for target consumers.
3. the empowerment felt by purchasers in buying a commodity were directly proportional to the number of options they could choose from.
4. the annual sale of companies that hired lifestyle influencers on Instagram for marketing their products were 40% less than those that did not.
Option: 2

Option 2 definitely supports what the author has to say; right from the start he is in favour of offering limited choices to customers. This option shows that offering fewer product can bring positive results. Thus 2 is not weakening. It becomes the right choice.

Choice 4 goes out because people go to Instagram because they are overwhelmed with choices. If that fails (as the sales are 40 percent less) it will weaken the author’s argument.

Choice 1 too speaks in favour of giving greater product options to customers. Choice 3 too does the same thing.

Question 15:
Which of the following hypothetical statements would add the least depth to the author’s prediction of the fate of start-ups offering few product options?
1. With Casper and Glossier venturing into new product ranges, their regular customers start losing trust in the companies and their products.
2. Start-ups with few product options are no exception to the American consumer market that is deeply divided along class lines.
3. An exponential surge in their sales enables start-ups to meet their desired profit goals without expanding their product catalogue.
4. With the motive of promoting certain rival companies, the government decides to double the tax-rates for these start-ups.
Option: 3

The author says towards the end that start-ups have the pressure of revenue, and they too will start offering greater number of choices to customers, as Casper and Glossier have done.

Option 1 adds depth to that prediction. So it goes out.

Option 2 says start-ups are no exception, so there is nothing unique about them. They are bound to fail or will have to change.

Option 3 adds least depth because it brings out a point that will not lead start-ups to offer more product varieties, after all they are experiencing a surge in revenue without expanding their product catalogue.

Option 4 also predicts that start-ups are likely to fail, adding weight to author’s argument about their fate mentioned in the last para.

RC PASSAGE

In the past, credit for telling the tale of Aladdin has often gone to Antoine Galland . . . the first European translator of . . . Arabian Nights [which] started as a series of translations of an incomplete manuscript of a medieval Arabic story collection. . . But, though those tales were of medieval origin, Aladdin may be a more recent invention. Scholars have not found a manuscript of the story that predates the version published in 1712 by Galland, who wrote in his diary that he first heard the tale from a Syrian storyteller from Aleppo named Hanna Diyab . . .

Despite the fantastical elements of the story, scholars now think the main character may actually be based on a real person’s real experiences. . . . Though Galland never credited Diyab in his published translations of the Arabian Nights stories, Diyab wrote something of his own: a travelogue penned in the mid-18th century. In it, he recalls telling Galland the story of Aladdin [and] describes his own hard-knocks upbringing and the way he marveled at the extravagance of Versailles. The descriptions he uses were very similar to the descriptions of the lavish palace that ended up in Galland’s version of the Aladdin story. [Therefore, author Paulo Lemos] Horta believes that “Aladdin might be the young Arab Maronite from Aleppo, marveling at the jewels and riches of Versailles.” . . .

For 300 years, scholars thought that the rags-to-riches story of Aladdin might have been inspired by the plots of French fairy tales that came out around the same time, or that the story was invented in that 18th century period as a byproduct of French Orientalism, a fascination with stereotypical exotic Middle Eastern luxuries that was prevalent then. The idea that Diyab might have based it on his own life — the experiences of a Middle Eastern man encountering the French, not vice-versa — flips the script. [According to Horta,] “Diyab was ideally placed to embody the overlapping world of East and West, blending the storytelling traditions of his homeland with his youthful observations of the wonder of 18th-century France.” . . .

To the scholars who study the tale, its narrative drama isn’t the only reason storytellers keep finding reason to return to Aladdin. It reflects not only “a history of the French and the Middle East, but also [a story about] Middle Easterners coming to Paris and that speaks to our world today,” as Horta puts it. “The day Diyab told the story of Aladdin to Galland, there were riots due to food shortages during the winter and spring of 1708 to 1709, and Diyab was sensitive to those people in a way that Galland is not. When you read this diary, you see this solidarity among the Arabs who were in Paris at the time. . . . There is little in the writings of Galland that would suggest that he was capable of developing a character like Aladdin with sympathy, but Diyab’s memoir reveals a narrator adept at capturing the distinctive psychology of a young protagonist, as well as recognizing the kinds of injustices and opportunities that can transform the path of any youthful adventurer.”

Question 16:
Which of the following does not contribute to the passage’s claim about the authorship of Aladdin?
1. The depiction of the affluence of Versailles in Diyab’s travelogue.
2. The narrative sensibility of Diyab’s travelogue.
3. The story-line of many French fairy tales of the 18th century.
4. Galland’s acknowledgment of Diyab in his diary.
Option: 3

We have to mark the choice that does not contribute to the passage’s claim about the authorship of Aladdin.

Option 1 does contribute because it confirms that Diyab is the author of the Aladdin

Option 2 too is mentioned in the passage towards the end “…Diyab’s memoir reveals a narrator adept at capturing the distinctive psychology of a young Protagonist…”

Option 4, too, supports the claim that Diyab could well be the author.

Option 3 does not support the claim because ‘the French fairy tales’ evidence has been disputed by the author, and he says that “The idea that Diyab might have based it on his own life — the experiences of a Middle Eastern man encountering the French, not vice-versa — flips the script.“

Which script is getting flipped? The story that Aladdin was inspired by French Fairy tales of the 18th century (read the passage)

Question 17:
The author of the passage is most likely to agree with which of the following explanations for the origins of the story of Aladdin?
1. Basing it on his own life experiences, Diyab transmitted the story of Aladdin to Galland who included it in Arabian Nights.
2. Galland received the story of Aladdin from Diyab who, in turn, found it in an incomplete medieval manuscript.
3. The story of Aladdin has its origins in an undiscovered, incomplete manuscript of a medieval Arabic collection of stories.
4. Galland derived the story of Aladdin from Diyab’s travelogue in which he recounts his fascination with the wealth of Versailles.
Option: 1

This is a very simple question. The main argument of the passage is that Diyab could well be the author of the passage. We have to pick a choice that goes in this direction.

Option 1 attributes the authorship to Diyab, it is the right choice

Option 2 attributes the authorship to some incomplete medieval manuscript. It goes out

Option 3 goes out for the same reason as option 2

Option 4 says that Galland derived the story, ultimately giving the credit of authorship to Galland.

Question 18:
Which of the following is the primary reason for why storytellers are still fascinated by the story of Aladdin?
1. The story of Aladdin is evidence of the eighteenth century French Orientalist attitude.
2. The traveller's experience that inspired the tale of Aladdin resonates even today.
3. The tale of Aladdin documents the history of Europe and Middle East.
4. The archetype of the rags-to-riches story of Aladdin makes it popular even today.
Option: 2

The first few sentences of the last paragraph have the clue to the right answer.

“To the scholars who study the tale, its narrative drama isn’t the only reason storytellers keep finding reason to return to Aladdin. It reflects not only “a history of the French and the Middle

East, but also [a story about] Middle Easterners coming to Paris and that speaks to our world today,” as Horta puts it.”

The archetype rags to riches story… has not featured in the above passage.

By reading the above paragraph, we can indisputably mark option 2 as your choice.

Question 19:
All of the following serve as evidence for the character of Aladdin being based on Hanna Diyab EXCEPT:
1. Diyab’s cosmopolitanism and cross-cultural experience.
2. Diyab’s humble origins and class struggles, as recounted in his travelogue.
3. Diyab’s narration of the original story to Galland.
4. Diyab’s description of the wealth of Versailles in his travelogue.
Option: 3

We have to mark the choice that is not serving as evidence, as it is an except question.

Option 1 serves as evidence (Diyab was ideally placed to embody the overlapping world of East and West, blending the storytelling traditions of his homeland with his youthful observations of the wonder of 18th-century France.”). The youthful observations of the wealth of Versailles refers to his cross-cultural experience. We can also eliminate choice 4 by reading above extract from the passage.

Option 2 can be ruled out because of this extract from the second paragraph: a travelogue penned in the mid-18th century. In it, he recalls telling Galland the story of Aladdin [and] describes his own hard-knocks upbringing…(the hard-knocks upbringing supports that Diyab could well be the author)

Option 3 does not serve as evidence for the character of Aladdin being based on Hanna Diyab, because Diyab could have read or heard the story from somewhere or narrated it to Galland. The fact that he is just narrating the story to Galland does not serve as evidence that Diyab is likely to be real Aladdin.

The other choices do support that.

Question 20:
Which of the following, if true, would invalidate the inversion that the phrase “flips the script” refers to?
1. Galland acknowledged in the published translations of Arabian Nights that he heard the story of Aladdin from Diyab.
2. Diyab’s travelogue described the affluence of the French city of Bordeaux, instead of Versailles.
3. The French fairy tales of the eighteenth century did not have rags-to-riches plot lines like that of the tale of Aladdin.
4. The description of opulence in Hanna Diyab’s and Antoine Galland’s narratives bore no resemblance to each other.
Option: 4

To invalidate the inversion, we have to first understand the inversion. What exactly is ‘flips the script” referring to? Scholars initially thought that Aladdin must have been inspired by 18th century French Fairy tales, but “The idea that Diyab might have based it on his own life — the experiences of a Middle Eastern man encountering the French, not vice-versa — flips the script.“

Here flips the script means changes the opinion that Aladdin was inspired by French Fairy tales. In other words, Aladdin was not inspired by French Fairy tales but that Diyab was the actual author. By invalidating the inversion, the question wants us to not give the credit to Diyab

Option 3 goes out because by pointing out the dissimilarity between Aladdin and French Fairy Tales, it gives the credit to Diyab.

Option 2 does not invalidate because still Diyab has seen the luxury and opulence of France, not necessarily of Versailles.

Option 1 also gives the credit to Diyab, so it is not invalidating the inversion.

Option 4 is the right choice because, if they bore no resemblance, then it disputes the evidence that Diyab ever narrated the story to Galland, as Galland claims in his diary. This would contradict, at least to some extent, the author’s claim that Diyab was the author of the character of Aladdin.

RC PASSAGE

Scientists recently discovered that Emperor Penguins—one of Antarctica’s most celebrated species—employ a particularly unusual technique for surviving the daily chill. As detailed in an article published today in the journal Biology Letters, the birds minimize heat loss by keeping the outer surface of their plumage below the temperature of the surrounding air. At the same time, the penguins’ thick plumage insulates their body and keeps it toasty. . . .

The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Overall, nearly the entire outer surface of the penguins’ bodies was below freezing at all times, except for their eyes and beaks. The scientists also used a computer simulation to determine how much heat was lost or gained from each part of the body—and discovered that by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them. The key to their trick is the difference between two different types of heat transfer: radiation and convection.

The penguins do lose internal body heat to the surrounding air through thermal radiation, just as our bodies do on a cold day. Because their bodies (but not surface plumage) are warmer than the surrounding air, heat gradually radiates outward over time, moving from a warmer material to a colder one. To maintain body temperature while losing heat, penguins, like all warm-blooded animals, rely on the metabolism of food. The penguins, though, have an additional strategy. Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air). As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.

Most of this heat, the researchers note, probably doesn’t make it all the way through the plumage and back to the penguins’ bodies, but it could make a slight difference. At the very least, the method by which a penguin’s plumage wicks heat from the bitterly cold air that surrounds it helps to cancel out some of the heat that’s radiating from its interior. And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts. . . . Since [penguins trek as far as 75 miles to the coast to breed and male penguins] don’t eat anything during [the incubation period of 64 days], conserving calories by giving up as little heat as possible is absolutely crucial.

Question 21:
In the last sentence of paragraph 3, “slightly warmer air” and “at a slightly colder temperature” refer to ______ AND ______ respectively:
1. the air inside penguins’ bodies kept warm because of metabolism of food AND the fall in temperature of the body air after it transfers some heat to the plumage.
2. the cold Antarctic air whose temperature is higher than that of the plumage AND the fall in temperature of the Antarctic air after it has transmitted some heat to the plumage.
3. the air trapped in the plumage which is warmer than the Antarctic air AND the fall in temperature of the trapped plumage air after it radiates out some heat.
4. the cold Antarctic air which becomes warmer because of the heat radiated out from penguins’ bodies AND the fall in temperature of the surrounding air after thermal convection.
Option: 2

This question can be answered from context. It is already given that the sentence can be found in the 3rd para last part. Let’s see the context:

As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.

We know the cold Antarctic air’s temperature is higher than that of the plumage, so the slightly warmer has that comes in contact with the plumage has to be the Antarctic air, after all the air is coming from outside (the cold Antarctic air is cycling around their bodies, so the air has to be outside). Both option 1 and 3 talk about air inside the plumage, while the sentence talks about air outside, thus options 1 and 3 go out.

We are left with 4 and 2. Option 4 goes out because the cold Antarctic air is already warmer than the penguins’ plumage. The cold Antarctic air is not becoming warmer because of the heat radiated from the penguins’ bodies. Thus option 4 goes out. Option 2 is the best choice and the right answer

Question 22:
Which of the following best explains the purpose of the word “paradoxically” as used by the author?
1. Keeping a part of their body colder helps penguins keep their bodies warmer.
2. Heat loss through radiation happens despite the heat gain through convection.
3. Keeping their body colder helps penguins keep their plumage warmer.
4. Heat gain through radiation happens despite the heat loss through convection.
Option: 1

This is one of the simplest question of the paper. You just have to read the lines where the phrase has come, and it is enough to help you find the right answer.

The passage says: “…by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them…”

Isn’t it a paradox that by keeping your outer surface cold, you are trying to draw slight amounts of heat from the air around your body…Option 1 precisely says that.

You should always try to find the answers from the context. If the author has used the term ‘paradoxically’ with respect to outer surface temperature and drawing heat from the air around them, then the right answer must also have the same context. None, except 1, have this context.

Question 23:
Which of the following can be responsible for Emperor Penguins losing body heat?
1. Reproduction process.
2. Thermal convection.
3. Food metabolism.
4. Plumage.
Option: 1

We know that the plumage is responsible for maintaining body heat; it is the central idea of the passage. Food metabolism, too, helps generate heat, the passage says that clearly. We are left with two choices, thermal convection and reproduction process, but the passage says that thermal convection helps them gain heat (the passage says “the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection”). Thus we see that thermal convection, food metabolism, and plumage all are responsible for heat gain, not heat loss. We are left with choice 1 as the right answer.

Choice 1 can be inferred from the following lines of the passage: “And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts...”. This suggests that the reproduction process results in heat loss.

Question 24:
All of the following, if true, would negate the findings of the study reported in the passage EXCEPT:
1. the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study were –10 degrees Fahrenheit.
2. the average temperature of the feet of penguins in the month of June 2008 were found to be 2.76 degrees Fahrenheit.
3. the temperature of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs were found to be 1.84, 7.24 and 9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively.
4. the penguins’ plumage were made of a material that did not allow any heat transfer through convection or radiation.
Option: 2

The passage says that the outer air temperature is warmer than the plumage temperature, but if the outer air temperature becomes colder than the plumage temperature, as option 1 says, the author’s argument would be invalidated, because the heat transfer from the outer colder air to the relatively warmer plumage will not happen.

Since we have to mark the option that is not invalidating the author’s argument, we can safely rule out choice 1 because it is weakening the author’s argument.

The plumage has to be colder than the outer Antarctic air, but in choice 3 the plumage is warmer than the outer Antarctic air, so this too would weaken the author’s argument in the passage.

Take choice 4; thermal convection helps the penguins get some heat, if the plumage is not allowing thermal convection to take place, there would be no gain of warmth, thus this too weakens the argument.

Only option 2 does not weaken the argument. The passage says that the feet is warmest part of the body, if you make it a little more warmer, it will still remain the warmest part of the body. Thus 2 is not weakening the argument in any way.

Question 25:
The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. People with dyslexia have difficulty with print-reading, and people with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with mind-reading.

2. An example of a lost cognitive instinct is mind-reading: our capacity to think of ourselves and others as having beliefs, desires, thoughts and feelings.

3. Mind-reading looks increasingly like literacy, a skill we know for sure is not in our genes, since scripts have been around for only 5,000-6,000 years.

4. Print-reading, like mind-reading varies across cultures, depends heavily on certain parts of the brain, and is subject to developmental disorders.

1 must come at the end because it is contrasting a specific feature of print-reading and mind-reading. Before 1, we must have the ideas of print reading and mind-reading introduced to us.

41 is definitely a pair because, and we must introduce mind-reading before statement 4. The point is should we have 2 or 3 as the opening sentence? 2 has a better introductory tone, and statement 3 goes into the detail of mind-reading. Thus we must 23 as one pair and 41 as the other, with 23 coming first. 2341 is thus the right sequence.

Question 26:
The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. Metaphors may map to similar meanings across languages, but their subtle differences can have a profound effect on our understanding of the world.

2. Latin scholars point out carpe diem is a horticultural metaphor that, particularly seen in the context of its source, is more accurately translated as “plucking the day,” evoking the plucking and gathering of ripening fruits or flowers, enjoying a moment that is rooted in the sensory experience of nature, unrelated to the force implied in seizing.

3. The phrase carpe diem, which is often translated as “seize the day and its accompanying philosophy, has gone on to inspire countless people in how they live their lives and motivates us to see the world a little differently from the norm

4. It’s an example of one of the more telling ways that we mistranslate metaphors from one language to another, revealing in the process our hidden assumptions about what we really value.

We found this question to be slightly dubious because our team feels that there are multiple sequences possible in this question. We tracked the source of the question and discovered that the sentences have been modified and there is no clear logic behind the sentence flow. Here is the source: https://daily.jstor.org/how-carpe-diem-got-lost-in-translation/

Question 27:
Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. One argument is that actors that do not fit within a single, well-defined category may suffer an “illegitimacy discount”.

2. Others believe that complex identities confuse audiences about an organization’s role or purpose.

3. Some organizations have complex and multidimensional identities that span or combine categories, while other organizations possess narrow identities.

4. Identity is one of the most important features of organizations, but there exist opposing views among sociologists about how identity affects organizational performance.

5. Those who think that complex identities are beneficial point to the strategic advantages of ambiguity, and organizations’ potential to differentiate themselves from competitors.

Statement 2 says that ‘others believe that complex identities…’. This statement suggests that there must be a similar but slightly contrary belief immediately in the sentence preceding sentence 2. 5 says complex identities are beneficial, while 2 says that complex identities confuse. Thus 5 and 2 form a pair. 4 introduces the idea of identity and thus becomes the opening sentence of the paragraph. Since 3 introduces the idea of ‘complex identities’, it must come before 52 pair. Thus we have 4352 coming together to form a coherent paragraph. 1 is the odd one out.

Question 28:
The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. If you’ve seen a little line of text on websites that says something like "customers who bought this also enjoyed that” you have experienced this collaborative filtering firsthand.

2. The problem with these algorithms is that they don’t take into account a host of nuances and circumstances that might interfere with their accuracy.

3. If you just bought a gardening book for your cousin, you might get a flurry of links to books about gardening, recommended just for you! – the algorithm has no way of knowing you hate gardening and only bought the book as a gift.

4. Collaborative filtering is a mathematical algorithm by which correlations and cooccurrences of behaviors are tracked and then used to make recommendations.

This is the simplest parajumble that we have in this paper. Statement 4 opens the para by introducing the idea of collaborative filtering. 1 takes the idea further by giving a first-and example of collaborative filtering. 2 talks about a problem with the algorithms of collaborative filtering, and 3 gives an example of that problem. Thus 4123 form a coherent paragraph.

Question 29:
The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. We’ll all live under mob rule until then, which doesn’t help anyone.

2. Perhaps we need to learn to condense the feedback we receive online so that 100 replies carry the same weight as just one.

3. As we grow more comfortable with social media conversations being part of the way we interact every day, we are going to have to learn how to deal with legitimate criticism.

4. A new norm will arise where it is considered unacceptable to reply with the same point that dozens of others have already.

Statement 3 opens the idea by saying that we need to learn how to deal with legitimate criticism.

By fixing the position of 1, we can arrange the sentences in the right order. 1 says ‘we will all live under mob rule until then…’ To what does this then refer? It must refer to some specific time or event. It refers to the time till we have new norm (read statement 4). A new norm will arise… we will have to live under a mob rule until then… Thus 4 and 1 form a pair. 2 cannot come after 1, nor does it open the para. The best place for 2 is after 3. Thus the right sequence is 3241.

Question 30:
The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

A distinguishing feature of language is our ability to refer to absent things, known as displaced reference. A speaker can bring distant referents to mind in the absence of any obvious stimuli. Thoughts, not limited to the here and now, can pop into our heads for unfathomable reasons. This ability to think about distant things necessarily precedes the ability to talk about them. Thought precedes meaningful referential communication. A prerequisite for the emergence of human-like meaningful symbols is that the mental categories they relate to can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.

1. Thoughts are essential to communication and only humans have the ability to think about objects not present in their surroundings.
2. The ability to think about objects not present in our environment precedes the development of human communication.
3. Displaced reference is particular to humans and thoughts pop into our heads for no real reason.
4. Thoughts precede all speech acts and these thoughts pop up in our heads even in the absence of any stimulus.
Option: 2

Everything is good with option 1 except that it says only humans have the ability to think, something that is nowhere to found in the passage. 1 can be ruled out.

Option 3 goes out because displaced reference is a distinguishing feature of language, not of humans. Option 3 can be ruled out.

Option 4 goes out because the passage says that thought precedes all meaningful communication, while option 4 says that thought precedes all speech acts, something that may not always be the case. Thus option 4 too goes out.

Option 2 is succinct and does not have any distortions or misrepresentations.

Question 31:
The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

Physics is a pure science that seeks to understand the behaviour of matter without regard to whether it will afford any practical benefit. Engineering is the correlative applied science in which physical theories are put to some specific use, such as building a bridge or a nuclear reactor. Engineers obviously rely heavily on the discoveries of physicists, but an engineer's knowledge of the world is not the same as the physicist's knowledge. In fact, an engineer's know-how will often depend on physical theories that, from the point of view of pure physics, are false. There are some reasons for this. First, theories that are false in the purest and strictest sense are still sometimes very good approximations to the true ones, and often have the added virtue of being much easier to work with. Second, sometimes the true theories apply only under highly idealized conditions which can only be created under controlled experimental situations. The engineer finds that in the real world, theories rejected by physicists yield more accurate predictions than the ones that they accept.

1. The relationship between pure and applied science is strictly linear, with the pure science directing applied science, and never the other way round.
2. Though engineering draws heavily from pure science, it contributes to knowledge, by incorporating the constraints and conditions in the real world.
3. The unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the design constraints to produce a successful result.
4. Engineering and physics fundamentally differ on matters like building a bridge or a nuclear reactor.
Option: 2

The passage broadly talks about the difference between purse science and applied science, i.e. engineering. Further the author says that engineers might find even those theories of physics useful that from the point of view of pure physics are false. Option 2 precisely captures that. It says that engineering incorporates the constraints and conditions of physics in the real world.

Option 1 says the relationship is strictly linear, but that is not the case. Had that been the case, the false theories of pure science could not have been used by engineers for accurate predictions.

Option 3 goes out because it does not even mention the word pure science. It solely focuses on engineers, ignoring the relationship between purse science and engineering.

Option 4 gives a summary that is totally different from the what the passage discusses.

Question 32:
The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

1. Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level, on the subconscious level of the awareness of the people targeted.
2. Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ works at the supraliminal level, wherein the people targeted are aware of being persuaded, after understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works.
3. Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ builds on peoples’ conscious thoughts and awareness, by understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level.
4. Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the supraliminal level, though the people targeted have no awareness of being persuaded.
Option: 4

There is a clear difference between the choices with respect to supraliminal and subliminal. The passage clearly tells us that Packard believed in supraliminal images, not subliminal. Thus 3 and 1 go out. We have to choose between 4 and 2.

Statement 2 says people are aware, while statement 4 says that people are not aware. The passage too says that people are not aware. Thus option 4 is the best choice.

This was a very simple question.

Question 33:
Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. His idea to use sign language was not a completely new idea as Native Americans used hand gestures to communicate with other tribes.

2. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, for example, observed that men who are deaf are incapable of speech.

3. People who were born deaf were denied the right to sign a will as they were “presumed to understand nothing; because it is not possible that they have been able to learn to read or write.”

4. Pushback against this prejudice began in the 16th century when Pedro Ponce de León created a formal sign language for the hearing impaired.

5. For millennia, people with hearing impairments encountered marginalization because it was believed that language could only be learned by hearing the spoken word.

To quickly answer this question, we must form pairs. 1 says ‘his idea to use sign language…’. We must find the noun to which the possessive pronoun ‘his’ refers. Logically it refers to Pedro Ponce, as he is the one who created the sign language. Thus 4 and 1 form a pair.

Also, only 5 can be the opening sentence, as it introduces the idea that for millennia, people with hearing impairment encountered marginalization. How they were marginalized can be seen in statement 3. Thus 5 and 3 form a pair. 5341 form a coherent para. There is no place for statement 2.

Question 34:
Five sentences related to a topic are given below in a jumbled order. Four of them form a coherent and unified paragraph. Identify the odd sentence that does not go with the four. Key in the number of the option that you choose.

1. ‘Stat’ signaled something measurable, while ‘matic’ advertised free labour; but ‘tron’, above all, indicated control.

2. It was a totem of high modernism, the intellectual and cultural mode that decreed no process or phenomenon was too complex to be grasped, managed and optimized.

3. Like the heraldic shields of ancient knights, these morphemes were painted onto the names of scientific technologies to proclaim one’s history and achievements to friends and enemies alike.

4. The historian Robert Proctor at Stanford University calls the suffix ‘-tron’, along with ‘-matic’ and ‘-stat’, embodied symbols.

5. To gain the suffix was to acquire a proud and optimistic emblem of the electronic and atomic age.