Of course, in his attempts at field investigation, the historian is at the disadvantage that the countryside has changed in many respects since the period which he is studying. He is not permitted to use H.G. Wells's time machine, to enable him to see it as it actually was. Inevitably he is concerned in the main, if not exclusively, with literary and other materials, which have survived from that stretch of the past which interests him.
Old maps may be plans of cities, charts of sea coasts and estuaries, cartularies of landed estates, or topographic delineations of land areas. These clearly engage the interest of historians and geographers alike, and they call for a combination of the methods and viewpoints of each. Maps can be conceived of and considered in several quite different ways, being properly regarded, and so assessed, as works of art—at best as objects of color, skill, form, and beauty. They may alternatively be regarded purely for their cartographic aesthetic.
The main queries which then arise are the following: how is it that the map—maker has carried out his task and with skill of what echelon and with what degree of success has he done so? Such an inquiry falls to the specialist field of historical cartography. An antiquarian map may also be approached in a means akin to that of the student who conceives it as a font contemporaneous with the time of its production. Thus, the historical cartographer may seek to bring grist to his mill and to consider the map's reliability as a satisfactory source of empirical evidence . By such means also the regional historian, in his search for essentials about such past matters as the availability of roads, the extent of enclosed farmland, or the number and location of mines and quarries, is no less an interested party.
The value of old maps as documents useful for historicity depends necessarily on to what degree they depict, and on how accurately. For virtually all periods of pre—modern history some maps have survived to serve as historiography, depicting, however imperfectly, certain features of past geography. The work of Claudius Ptolemy—who lived in the 2nd century A.D.—for centuries provided the basis for maps of the known world and its major regions. Although many were drawn on the scientific basis which he provided, they nevertheless embodied many errors—of location, distance, and the shape of areas of land and sea.
The medieval portolan charts of the Mediterranean Sea and the later charts which provided sailing directions, produced in Holland, were accurate enough to be useful in practical navigation. Plans of important cities of Europe, so well drawn as to yield evidence of their earlier form and extent, are notably offered in Braun and Hogenberg's Civitates Orbis Terrarum, published at Cologne and, in England, in John Speed's plans of cities. Similarly, John Ogilby's Britannia, Volume the First, appearing in 1675, gives detailed information of England's road system as it existed nearly three centuries ago. However, few of the early maps approach modern standards, which require accurate representation of distances and of heights above mean sea—level and the use of carefully distinguished symbols. This is because it was not until the 18th century that cartography, as an exact science, was born.
Suppose that an accurate, medieval map of the French countryside is found in a Paris library. What impact would this discovery have on the author's opinion about the accuracy of old maps?[A] It could be cited in support of the author's opinion.
[B] It could be cited as contradicting the author's opinion.
[C] It could not be considered relevant to the author's opinion.
[D] It could be cited in support of the author's opinion only if it was produced by a master mapmaker.
For which of the following statements does the passage provide some evidence or explanation?[A] Ancient mapmakers were not good artists.
[B] Maps can be judged on several different criteria.
[C] Map—making was an exact science before Ogilby produced his maps.
[D] Eastern Europeans were the first to draw precise maps.
According to the passage, all of the following would be considered maps EXCEPT:[A] a drawing of Mediterranean sea lanes in the 2nd century B.C.
[B] B. a drawing of Rome's city streets in the 4th century B.C.
[C] a drawing of Northern hemisphere star constellations in the 5th century A.D.
[D] a drawing of Scottish farm boundaries in the 10th century A.D.
With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?[A] Old maps provide important information about the past, even if they are somewhat misleading.
[B] Modern maps, in general, are more accurate than maps produced in the 18th century.
[C] The maps in Braun and Hogenberg's book have no historical value because of their errors.
[D] Claudius Ptolemy's maps were the most accurate ever made prior to the birth of modern cartography.
In the context of the passage, the phrase "however imperfectly " (fourth paragraph) refers to:[A] the inability of contemporary historians to interpret Claudius Ptolemy's maps.
[B] the inaccuracies present in most maps produced before the 18th century.
[C] the lack of artistic skill displayed by mapmakers in the modern period.
[D] the failure of pre—modern mapmakers to produce sea navigation charts.
According to the passage, which of the following statement is/are NOT true?
I. Most maps produced before the 18th century are not as accurate as maps produced after the 18th century.
II. The maps of Claudius Ptolemy were not used as a model by later map—makers.
III. Historians have generally been uninterested in using maps as a tool to learn about the past.[A] II only
[B] III only
[C] I and II
[D] II and III