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CAT 2022 VARC questions solutions slot 1

Instruction

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Stories concerning the Undead have always been with us. From out of the primal darkness of Mankind's earliest years, come whispers of eerie creatures, not quite alive (or alive in a way which we can understand), yet not quite dead either. These may have been ancient and primitive deities who dwelt deep in the surrounding forests and in remote places, or simply those deceased who refused to remain in their tombs and who wandered about the countryside, physically tormenting and frightening those who were still alive. Mostly they were ill-defined-strange sounds in the night beyond the comforting glow of the fire, or a shape, half-glimpsed in the twilight along the edge of an encampment. They were vague and indistinct, but they were always there with the power to terrify and disturb. They had the power to touch the minds of our early ancestors and to fill them with dread. Such fear formed the basis of the earliest tales although the source and exact nature of such terrors still remained very vague.

And as Mankind became more sophisticated, leaving the gloom of their caves and forming themselves into recognizable communities-towns, cities, whole cultures-so the Undead travelled with them, inhabiting their folklore just as they had in former times. Now they began to take on more definite shapes. They became walking cadavers; the physical embodiment of former deities and things which had existed alongside Man since the Creation. Some still remained vague and ill-defined but, as Mankind strove to explain the horror which it felt towards them, such creatures emerged more readily into the light.

In order to confirm their abnormal status, many of the Undead were often accorded attributes, which defied the natural order of things-the power to transform themselves into other shapes, the ability to sustain themselves by drinking human blood, and the ability to influence human minds across a distance. Such powers-described as supernatural-only [lent] an added dimension to the terror that humans felt regarding them.

And it was only natural, too, that the Undead should become connected with the practice of magic. From very early times, Shamans and witchdoctors had claimed at least some power and control over the spirits of departed ancestors, and this has continued down into more " civilized" times. Formerly, the invisible spirits and forces that thronged around men's earliest encampments, had spoken " through" the tribal Shamans but now, as entities in their own right, they were subject to magical control and could be physically summoned by a competent sorcerer. However, the relationship between the magician and an Undead creature was often a very tenuous and uncertain one. Some sorcerers might have even become Undead entities once they died, but they might also have been susceptible to the powers of other magicians when they did.

From the Middle Ages and into the Age of Enlightenment, theories of the Undead continued to grow and develop. Their names became more familiar-werewolf, vampire, ghoul-each one certain to strike fear into the hearts of ordinary humans.

Question 1:

All of the following statements, if false, could be seen as being in accordance with the passage, EXCEPT:

  1. the transition from the Middle Ages to the Age of Enlightenment saw new theories of the Undead.

  2. the Undead remained vague and ill-defined, even as Mankind strove to understand the horror they inspired.

  3. the relationship between Shamans and the Undead was believed to be a strong and stable one.

  4. the growing sophistication of Mankind meant that humans stopped believing in the Undead.

Option: 1
Explanation:
For our convenience, we need to reword this question. All of the following, if false, could be seen as being in accordance with the passage=All of the following, if true, could be seen as contradicting the ideas given in the passage. So, first, we should pick the choices that are contradicting the arguments given in the passage. But since it is an except question, the right answer will be the one that is not contradicting the passage. The passage says “…this has continued down into more “civilized” times”. This statement contradicts 4. The second last paragraph contradicts option 3. Option 1 is correct, as can be seen from the first sentence of the last paragraph. The second part of option 2 seems to be a little incorrect ‘the source and exact nature of the terror remained vague’ is what the passage says. It means mankind understood the horror they inspired but they were not clear about the source and the nature of that horror. Options 1 and 2 both seem to be correct as per the passage, though there is some distortion in the way option 2 is worded. It is for this reason option 1 has been given as the right answer.


Question 2:

Which one of the following observations is a valid conclusion to draw from the statement, " From out of the primal darkness of Mankind's earliest years, come whispers of eerie creatures, not quite alive (or alive in a way which we can understand), yet not quite dead either." ?

  1. Mankind's primal years were marked by creatures alive with eerie whispers, but seen only in the darkness.

  2. We can understand the lives of the eerie creatures in Mankind's early years through their whispers in the darkness.

  3. Mankind's early years were marked by a belief in the existence of eerie creatures that were neither quite alive nor dead.

  4. Long ago, eerie creatures used to whisper in the primal darkness that they were not quite dead.

Option: 3
Explanation:
The quoted statement does not say that literally there were eerie creatures… it is the belief of mankind that is being highlighted in the quoted text. From primal darkness means from remote past something has been passed down to you. What that thing can be? It is only beliefs and stories that are passed down from generation to generation. It is not that literally there were such creatures. It is for this reason options 1, 2, and 4 go out. 3 is the best choice.


Question 3:

Which one of the following statements best describes what the passage is about?

  1. The passage describes the failure of human beings to fully comprehend their environment.

  2. The writer discusses the transition from primitive thinking to the Age of Enlightenment.

  3. The passage discusses the evolution of theories of the Undead from primitive thinking to the Age of Enlightenment.

  4. The writer describes the ways in which the Undead come to be associated with Shamans and the practice of magic.

Option: 3
Explanation:
This is a very easy question to answer. By using the word ‘shamans’, option 4 becomes too specific and misses the broader idea of the passage. It goes out. Option 3 looks good because theories of the undead is the chief concern of the passage and this evolution has been discussed, keeping the time reference from the ancient past to the age of Enlightenment. Option 2 does not even mention the word ‘undead’, instead of that it uses the word ‘primitive thinking’. ‘comprehending their environment’, a phrase in option 1, is completely out of context, too broad and fails to capture the keyword ‘theories of the undead’.


Question 4:

" In order to confirm their abnormal status, many of the Undead were often accorded attributes, which defied the natural order of things . . ." Which one of the following best expresses the claim made in this statement?

  1. The Undead are deified in nature's order by giving them divine attributes.

  2. Human beings conceptualise the Undead as possessing abnormal features.

  3. According the Undead an abnormal status is to reject the natural order of things.

  4. The natural attributes of the Undead are rendered abnormal by changing their status.

Option: 2
Explanation:
Option 3 and 4 can be an implication but not a claim that the statement is trying to make. A claim means something that you find to be true though you may not have very strong evidence in support that of that claim. Option 1 looks good but by using the word ‘divine’ it makes the claim very specific. The passage nowhere says that the undead were accorded attributes of divine beings. It could have been either divine or terrifying. Both the possibilities are there. But since they defied the natural order of things, they were abnormal (either divine or terrifying). Thus, option 2 is correct and the best choice.


Instruction

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The Chinese have two different concepts of a copy. Fangzhipin . . . are imitations where the difference from the original is obvious. These are small models or copies that can be purchased in a museum shop, for example. The second concept for a copy is fuzhipin . . . They are exact reproductions of the original, which, for the Chinese, are of equal value to the original. It has absolutely no negative connotations. The discrepancy with regard to the understanding of what a copy is has often led to misunderstandings and arguments between China and Western museums. The Chinese often send copies abroad instead of originals, in the firm belief that they are not essentially different from the originals. The rejection that then comes from the Western museums is perceived by the Chinese as an insult. . . .

The Far Eastern notion of identity is also very confusing to the Western observer. The Ise Grand Shrine [in Japan] is 1,300 years old for the millions of Japanese people who go there on pilgrimage every year. But in reality this temple complex is completely rebuilt from scratch every 20 years. . . .

The cathedral of Freiburg Minster in southwest Germany is covered in scaffolding almost all year round. The sandstone from which it is built is a very soft, porous material that does not withstand natural erosion by rain and wind. After a while, it crumbles. As a result, the cathedral is continually being examined for damage, and eroded stones are replaced. And in the cathedral's dedicated workshop, copies of the damaged sandstone figures are constantly being produced. Of course, attempts are made to preserve the stones from the Middle Ages for as long as possible. But at some point they, too, are removed and replaced with new stones.

Fundamentally, this is the same operation as with the Japanese shrine, except in this case the production of a replica takes place very slowly and over long periods of time. . . . In the field of art as well, the idea of an unassailable original developed historically in the Western world. Back in the 17th century [in the West], excavated artworks from antiquity were treated quite differently from today. They were not restored in a way that was faithful to the original. Instead, there was massive intervention in these works, changing their appearance. . . .

It is probably this intellectual position that explains why Asians have far fewer scruples about cloning than Europeans. The South Korean cloning researcher Hwang Woo-suk, who attracted worldwide attention with his cloning experiments in 2004, is a Buddhist. He found a great deal of support and followers among Buddhists, while Christians called for a ban on human cloning. . . . Hwang legitimised his cloning experiments with his religious affiliation: 'I am Buddhist, and I have no philosophical problem with cloning. And as you know, the basis of Buddhism is that life is recycled through reincarnation. In some ways, I think, therapeutic cloning restarts the circle of life.'

Question 5:

Which one of the following scenarios is unlikely to follow from the arguments in the passage?

  1. A 21st century Christian scientist is likely to oppose cloning because of his philosophical orientation.

  2. A 17th century British painter would have no problem adding personal touches when restoring an ancient Roman painting.

  3. A 17th century French artist who adhered to a Christian worldview would need to be completely true to the original intent of a painting when restoring it.

  4. A 20th century Japanese Buddhist monk would value a reconstructed shrine as the original.

Option: 3
Explanation:
The passage says that the 21st century West is not willing to accept cloning because they believe in and adhere to the idea of not tampering with the original. Option 1 is likely to follow from the passage. Since things were different in the 17th century than what it is today, artists would not mind tampering with the original. Option 2 follows from the passage. Option 3 is opposite to what the passage states. In fact, if 2 follows from the passage, then 3 must also follow from the passage. One might wonder why not 4. The fact that Eastern people do not object to the idea of imitation does not mean that they would not value reconstructed shrine as the original. Only 3 is unlikely to follow, rest all will follow.


Question 6:

The value that the modern West assigns to " an unassailable original" has resulted in all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. it allows regular employment for certain craftsmen.

  2. it discourages them from carrying out human cloning.

  3. it discourages them from making interventions in ancient art.

  4. it discourages them from simultaneous displays of multiple copies of a painting.

Option: 2
Explanation:
Option 1 is the result of ‘unassailable original’ because to preserve the original, they have to constantly protect the original, keeping certain craftsmen regularly employed. The idea of ‘unassailable original’ is with respect to art. So, we have to keep the discussion limited to art. Both 3 and 4 are a result of the value assigned to the unassailable original. Option 2 is the odd one out.


Question 7:

Which one of the following statements does not correctly express the similarity between the Ise Grand Shrine and the cathedral of Freiburg Minster?

  1. Both can be regarded as very old structures.

  2. Both are continually undergoing restoration.

  3. Both were built as places of worship.

  4. Both will one day be completely rebuilt.

Option: 2
Explanation:
This is a very easy question to answer. We know from the passage that both the structures are quite old, and that one day both will be completely rebuilt, and that both are places of worship. As far as the idea of continual restoration is concerned, it is quite true for Freiburg, but not for the Grand Shrine. Option 2 is the right choice.


Question 8:

Based on the passage, which one of the following copies would a Chinese museum be unlikely to consider as having less value than the original?

  1. Pablo Picasso's painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting, bearing Picasso's signature.

  2. Pablo Picasso's miniaturised, but otherwise faithful and accurate painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting.

  3. Pablo Picasso's photograph of Vincent van Gogh's original painting, printed to exactly the same scale.

  4. Pablo Picasso's painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting, identical in every respect.

Option: 4
Explanation:
We have to pick a choice that a Chinese museum would consider as valuable because ‘unlikely to consider having less value’ means to find something valuable. From the first paragraph, anything that is not the exact replica of the original would be considered of less value. Option 1 looks good but since Van Gogh’s painting contains Picasso’s signature, its value is diminished. Option 2 goes out because the painting is miniaturized. Option 3 goes out because it is a photograph taken by Picasso, whereas option 4, which is the right answer, is Picasso’s painting of Van Gogh’s original painting, identical in every respect. Thus 4 is the best choice because a painting is always better than photograph and is likely to have higher value.


Instruction

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Critical theory of technology is a political theory of modernity with a normative dimension. It belongs to a tradition extending from Marx to Foucault and Habermas according to which advances in the formal claims of human rights take center stage while in the background centralization of ever more powerful public institutions and private organizations imposes an authoritarian social order.

Marx attributed this trajectory to the capitalist rationalization of production. Today it marks many institutions besides the factory and every modern political system, including so-called socialist systems. This trajectory arose from the problems of command over a disempowered and deskilled labor force; but everywhere [that] masses are organized – whether it be Foucault’s prisons or Habermas’s public sphere – the same pattern prevails. Technological design and development is shaped by this pattern as the material base of a distinctive social order. Marcuse would later point to a “project” as the basis of what he called rather confusingly “technological rationality.” Releasing technology from this project is a democratic political task.

In accordance with this general line of thought, critical theory of technology regards technologies as an environment rather than as a collection of tools. We live today with and even within technologies that determine our way of life. Along with the constant pressures to build centers of power, many other social values and meanings are inscribed in technological design. A hermeneutics of technology must make explicit the meanings implicit in the devices we use and the rituals they script. Social histories of technologies such as the bicycle, artificial lighting or firearms have made important contributions to this type of analysis. Critical theory of technology attempts to build a methodological approach on the lessons of these histories.

As an environment, technologies shape their inhabitants. In this respect, they are comparable to laws and customs. Each of these institutions can be said to represent those who live under their sway through privileging certain dimensions of their human nature. Laws of property represent the interest in ownership and control. Customs such as parental authority represent the interest of childhood in safety and growth. Similarly, the automobile represents its users in so far as they are interested in mobility. Interests such as these constitute the version of human nature sanctioned by society.

This notion of representation does not imply an eternal human nature. The concept of nature as non-identity in the Frankfurt School suggests an alternative. On these terms, nature is what lies at the limit of history, at the point at which society loses the capacity to imprint its meanings on things and control them effectively. The reference here is, of course, not to the nature of natural science, but to the lived nature in which we find ourselves and which we are. This nature reveals itself as that which cannot be totally encompassed by the machinery of society. For the Frankfurt School, human nature, in all its transcending force, emerges out of a historical context as that context is [depicted] in illicit joys, struggles and pathologies. We can perhaps admit a less romantic . . . conception in which those dimensions of human nature recognized by society are also granted theoretical legitimacy.

Question 9:

Which one of the following statements contradicts the arguments of the passage?

  1. The problems of command over a disempowered and deskilled labour force gave rise to similar patterns of the capitalist rationalisation of production wherever masses were organised.

  2. Marx's understanding of the capitalist rationalisation of production and Marcuse's understanding of a " project" of " technological rationality" share theoretical inclinations.

  3. Paradoxically, the capitalist rationalisation of production is a mark of so-called socialist systems as well.

  4. Masses are organised in patterns set by Foucault's prisons and Habermas' public sphere.

Option: 4
Explanation:
This is a difficult question to answer because we have to pick the option that contradicts the arguments of the passage. We can either go by selection or by elimination. The process of elimination should be followed only when we have time and the question is difficult. The process of selection helps us arrive at the answer confidently and in less time. The first two sentences of second paragraph suggests that option 1 is in sync with the passage. From those two sentences, we can say that even option 3 is in sync with the passage. Option 4 is weird; it makes no sense in the way it is worded: masses are organized in patterns set by Foucault’s prisons and Habermas’ public sphere. One wonders whether any pattern was set by Foucault and Habermas. The passage says a certain pattern prevails everywhere, whether it is Foucault’s prisons or Habermas’ public sphere. We realize that there was no pattern set by either of the two. Option 4 is wrongly worded and this can be verified from the passage. Thus option 4 can be selected as the right answer because there is evidence contrary to what is given in option 4. Many might mark option 2 but it is difficult for us to prove whether or not it is contradicting the arguments of the passage.


Question 10:

Which one of the following statements could be inferred as supporting the arguments of the passage?

  1. Technologies form the environmental context and shape the contours of human society.

  2. Nature decides the point at which society loses its capacity to control history.

  3. The romantic conception of nature referred to by the passage is the one that requires theoretical legitimacy.

  4. It is not human nature, but human culture that is represented by institutions such as law and custom.

Option: 1
Explanation:
Though an inference, this is a simple question to answer. Right from the start, option 1 is a recurring theme of the passage. There is no need to look beyond option 1. ‘Controlling history’, as stated in option 2, is nowhere mentioned or implied in the passage. When there is an easy and direct answer given in the choices, one should not make the mistake of disproving or eliminating the other options.


Question 11:

Which one of the following statements best reflects the main argument of the fourth paragraph of the passage?

  1. Technology, laws, and customs are not unlike each other if considered as institutions.

  2. Technology, laws, and customs are comparable, but dissimilar phenomena.

  3. Automobiles represent the interest in mobility present in human nature.

  4. Technological environments privilege certain dimensions of human nature as effectively as laws and customs.

Option: 1
Explanation:
To answer this question correctly we have to read the fourth paragraph of the passage. Fundamentally, the fourth paragraph compares laws and customs with technology, stating that they have comparable influence. Option 1 is the right answer because not unlike each other means like each other.


Question 12:

All of the following claims can be inferred from the passage, EXCEPT:

  1. analyses of technologies must engage with their social histories to be able to reveal their implicit and explicit meanings for us.

  2. the significance of parental authority to children's safety does not therefore imply that parental authority is a permanent aspect of human nature.

  3. the critical theory of technology argues that, as issues of human rights become more prominent, we lose sight of the ways in which the social order becomes more authoritarian.

  4. technologies seek to privilege certain dimensions of human nature at a high cost to lived nature.

Option: 4
Explanation:
It is very difficult to justify option 4 because in the passage there is not ‘cost factor’ discussed anywhere. In the first paragraph we have evidence for option 3. Thus, option 3 can be inferred. The passage (second last paragraph) says ‘parental authority represents the interest of childhood’, suggesting that it does not go beyond childhood, and is not a permanent aspect of human nature. Towards the end of the third paragraph, we have evidence for option 1. Thus, 4 is the best choice as there is no evidence for it anywhere in the passage.


Instruction

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Stoicism was founded in 300 BC by the Greek philosopher Zeno and survived into the Roman era until about AD 300. According to the Stoics, emotions consist of two movements. The first movement is the immediate feeling and other reactions (e.g., physiological response) that occur when a stimulus or event occurs. For instance, consider what could have happened if an army general accused Marcus Aurelius of treason in front of other officers. The first movement for Marcus may have been (internal) surprise and anger in response to this insult, accompanied perhaps by some involuntary physiological and expressive responses such as face flushing and a movement of the eyebrows. The second movement is what one does next about the emotion. Second movement behaviors occur after thinking and are under one's control. Examples of second movements for Marcus might have included a plot to seek revenge, actions signifying deference and appeasement, or perhaps proceeding as he would have proceeded whether or not this event occurred: continuing to lead the Romans in a way that Marcus Aurelius believed best benefited them. In the Stoic view, choosing a reasoned, unemotional response as the second movement is the only appropriate response.

The Stoics believed that to live the good life and be a good person, we need to free ourselves of nearly all desires such as too much desire for money, power, or sexual gratification. Prior to second movements, we can consider what is important in life. Money, power, and excessive sexual gratification are not important. Character, rationality, and kindness are important. The Epicureans, first associated with the Greek philosopher Epicurus . . . held a similar view, believing that people should enjoy simple pleasures, such as good conversation, friendship, food, and wine, but not be indulgent in these pursuits and not follow passion for those things that hold no real value like power and money. As Oatley (2004) states, " the Epicureans articulated a view-enjoyment of relationship with friends, of things that are real rather than illusory, simple rather than artificially inflated, possible rather than vanishingly unlikely-that is certainly relevant today" . . . In sum, these ancient Greek and Roman philosophers saw emotions, especially strong ones, as potentially dangerous. They viewed emotions as experiences that needed to be [reined] in and controlled.

As Oatley (2004) points out, the Stoic idea bears some similarity to Buddhism. Buddha, living in India in the 6th century BC, argued for cultivating a certain attitude that decreases the probability of (in Stoic terms) destructive second movements. Through meditation and the right attitude, one allows emotions to happen to oneself (it is impossible to prevent this), but one is advised to observe the emotions without necessarily acting on them; one achieves some distance and decides what has value and what does not have value. Additionally, the Stoic idea of developing virtue in oneself, of becoming a good person, which the Stoics believed we could do because we have a touch of the divine, laid the foundation for the three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam . . . As with Stoicism, tenets of these religions include controlling our emotions lest we engage in sinful behavior.

Question 13:

Which one of the following statements, if false, could be seen as contradicting the facts/arguments in the passage?

  1. Despite practising meditation and cultivating the right attitude, emotions cannot ever be controlled.

  2. The Greek philosopher Zeno survived into the Roman era until about AD 300.

  3. In the Stoic view, choosing a reasoned, unemotional response as the first movement is an appropriate response to emotional situations.

  4. In the Epicurean view, indulging in simple pleasures is not desirable.

Option: 4
Explanation:
When the question says: which of the following, if false, could be seen as contradicting the arguments, it simply means: which of the following, if true, could be seen as supporting the arguments of the passage. They are one and the same thing and to make things easier, we should replace ‘if false’ with ‘if true’, and replace ‘contradicting/weakening’, with ‘supporting/strengthening’. This makes question quite manageable. In this question, we have to pick a choice that supports the passage. Option 1 contradicts what the passage says about Buddhism and positive effects of meditation. Option goes out (because we are looking for the statement that supports the facts given in the passage). We do not have any evidence of Greek philosopher Zeno surviving until AD 300. Option 2 goes out. Choosing a reasoned, unemotional response is a part of the second movement, not the first. By elimination, option 4 is the best choice, but many of you might find evidence that contradicts option 4. There is a difference. As per Epicurean view “people should enjoy simple pleasures, such as good conversation, friendship, food, and wine, but not be indulgent in these pursuits”. Enjoying and indulging are two different things. Epicureans are against indulging, not enjoying. Thus 4 is the best answer because it is in sync with what is given in the passage.


Question 14:

" Through meditation and the right attitude, one allows emotions to happen to oneself (it is impossible to prevent this), but one is advised to observe the emotions without necessarily acting on them; one achieves some distance and decides what has value and what does not have value." In the context of the passage, which one of the following is not a possible implication of the quoted statement?

  1. Emotional responses can make it difficult to distinguish valuable experiences from valueless experiences.

  2. " Meditation and the right attitude" , in this instance, implies an initially passive reception of all experiences.

  3. Meditation allows certain out-of-body experiences that permit us to gain the distance necessary to control our emotions.

  4. The observation of emotions in a distant manner corresponds to the second movement referred to earlier in the passage.

Option: 3
Explanation:
There are many questions in CAT RCs that can be answered just by reading the question carefully. Here too we have a question for which we need to just read the quoted text. The text says “…one allows emotions to happen to oneself…”. If the concern is emotions happening to oneself, then there is no place for out-of-body experiences. Therefore, option 3 is not a possible implication of the quoted statement. All the other choices are possible implications of the quoted statement.


Question 15:

On the basis of the passage, which one of the following statements can be regarded as true?

  1. There were no Stoics in India at the time of the Roman civilisation.

  2. The Epicureans believed in controlling all emotions.

  3. The Stoic influences can be seen in multiple religions.

  4. The Stoics valorised the pursuit of money, power, and sexual gratification.

Option: 3
Explanation:
There is no discussion about India with reference to the stoics. Option 1 goes out. The Epicureans did not believe in controlling emotions. They rather believed in the simple pleasures of life. From the last sentence of the paragraph, we can say that option 3 is true ‘The stoic idea laid the foundation for three monotheistic religions…’. Option 3 is the best answer.


Question 16:

Which one of the following statements would be an accurate inference from the example of Marcus Aurelius?

  1. Marcus Aurelius was one of the leaders of the Roman army.

  2. Marcus Aurelius was humiliated by the accusation of treason in front of the other officers.

  3. Marcus Aurelius was a Stoic whose philosophy survived into the Roman era.

  4. Marcus Aurelius plotted revenge in his quest for justice.

Option: 1
Explanation:
This is a question of moderate difficulty. While discussing the second movement behaviors (in the first half of the passage), the author says “…continuing to lead the Romans in a way that Marcus Aurelius believed best benefited them….’ It is a leader who leads, and by using the phrase ‘continuing to lead’, the author suggests that this is something he did and in reality, would have continued to do, even in the face of the hypothetical scenario that he has considered at the start of the passage. Therefore, option 1 can be inferred. The others cannot. Option 2 is not the right choice because it is a hypothetical situation that the author has himself created to explain to us the first movement and second movement behaviors.


Question 17:

There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: Having made citizens more and less knowledgeable than their predecessors, the Internet has proved to be both a blessing and a curse.

Paragraph: Never before has a population, nearly all of whom has enjoyed at a least a secondary school education, been exposed to so much information, whether in newspapers and magazines or through YouTube, Google, and Facebook. ____(1) ____. Yet it is not clear that people today are more knowledgeable than their barely literate predecessors. Contemporary advances in technology offered more serious and inquisitive students access to realms of knowledge previously unimaginable and unavailable. ____ (2) ____. But such readily available knowledge leads many more students away from serious study, the reading of actual texts, and toward an inability to write effectively and grammatically. ____ (3) ____. It has let people choose sources that reinforce their opinions rather than encouraging them to question inherited beliefs. ____ (4) ____.

  1. Option 1

  2. Option 2

  3. Option 3

  4. Option 4

Option: 4
Explanation:
This is a difficult question to answer, though the initial round of elimination is easy. 1 is not the right position because the subsequent sentence beginning with the conjunction ‘yet’ does not properly contrast with the given sentence. Even position 2 does not justify the contrast with the subsequent sentence. 3 or 4 could be the right position but there needs to be a justification for this. But the given sentence is more of a conclusion. The phrase ‘the internet has proved to both a blessing and a curse’ lends a concluding tone to the sentence. Thus 4 is the right position for the sentence. The pronoun ‘it’ in the penultimate sentence does not refer to the noun internet. It refers to what has been stated in the sentence before it. ‘…such readily available knowledge leads many more students away from serious study...'….’It has let people choose sources that reinforce their opinions rather than encouraging them to question inherited beliefs.’


Question 18:

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. Some company leaders are basing their decisions on locating offices to foster innovation and growth, as their best-performing inventors suffered the greatest productivity losses when their commutes grew longer.

2. Shorter commutes support innovation by giving employees more time in the office and greater opportunities for in-person collaboration, while removing the physical strain of a long commute.

3. This is not always the case: remote work does not automatically lead to greater creativity and productivity as office water-cooler conversations are also very important for innovation.

4. Some see the link between long commutes and productivity as support for work-from-home scenarios, as many workers have grown accustomed to their commute-free arrangements during the pandemic.

Option: 2143
Explanation:
This is a very difficult question. It is not easy for us to create the right logical sequence, but we have one strong clue in sentence 4, which says ‘some see the link between long commutes and productivity…’. We know that ‘some’ is a pronoun and it refers to some noun or it refers to something. Who is it that sees the link between long commutes and productivity? It refers to some company leaders in sentence 1. Thus 21 is a pair. Both 4 and 3 are connected because 4 talks about ‘work-from-home scenarios’, and 3 further says that ‘this is not the case…remote work does not automatically lead to greater creativity…’. Thus, we see that 143 is a link. We can fit 2 at the start or at the end, but if we start with 1, it looks abrupt. 2 is better if it comes at the start than at the end. That way it would introduce the idea of short commutes. 2143 is the best sequence.


Question 19:

There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: Easing the anxiety and pressure of having a “big day” is part of the appeal for many couples who marry in secret.

Paragraph: Wedding season is upon us and – after two years of Covid chaos that saw nuptials scaled back– you may think the temptation would be to go all out. ____(1) ____. But instead of expanding the guest list, many couples are opting to have entirely secret ceremonies. With Covid case numbers remaining high and the cost of living crisis meaning that many couples are feeling the pinch, it’s no wonder that some are less than eager to send out invites. ____(2) ____. Plus, it can’t hurt that in celebrity circles getting married in secret is all the rage. ____ (3) ____. “I would definitely say that secret weddings are becoming more common,” says Landis Bejar, the founder of a therapy practice, which specialises in helping brides and grooms manage wedding stress. “People are looking for ways to get out of the spotlight and avoid the pomp and circumstance of weddings. ____ (4) ____. They just want to get to the part where they are married.”

  1. Option 1

  2. Option 2

  3. Option 3

  4. Option 4

Option: 2
Explanation:
Secret marriage ceremonies are introduced after position 1 because after position 1 we have ‘many couples are opting to have entirely secret ceremonies. After position 2 we have the phrase ‘plus, it can’t hurt that in celebrity circles…’. We have to understand why the author is using the word ‘plus’. He would have used ‘plus’ only because in the earlier sentence (position 2) he must have spoken about some advantage of getting married in secret. Getting married in secret eases the anxiety of having a ‘big day’. Plus, in celebrity circles getting married in secret is all the rage. Position 2 is the best position for the given sentence.


Question 20:

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

All that we think we know about how life hangs together is really some kind of illusion that we have perpetrated on ourselves because of our limited vision. What appear to be inanimate objects such as stones turn out not only to be alive in the same way that we are, but also in many infinitesimal ways to be affected by stimuli just as humans are. The distinction between animate and inanimate simply cannot be made when you enter the world of quantum mechanics and try to determine how those apparent subatomic particles, of which you and everything else in our universe is composed, are all tied together. The point is that physics and metaphysics show there is a pattern to the universe that goes beyond our capacity to grasp it with our brains.

  1. The inanimate world is both sentient and cognizant like its animate counterpart.

  2. The effect of stimuli is similar in inanimate objects when compared to animate objects or living beings.

  3. Quantum physics indicates that an astigmatic view of reality results in erroneous assumptions about the universe.

  4. Arbitrary distinctions between inanimate and animate objects disappear at the scale at which quantum mechanics works.

Option: 4
Explanation:
The primary focus of the passage is animate and inanimate objects, the author suggesting that there is no difference between the two when you enter the world of quantum mechanics. The point that is being made in the passage is that at the level of quantum mechanics the distinction between animate and inanimate things disappears. Option 4 precisely captures that idea. 1 goes out because ‘sentient’ and ‘cognizant’ are too extreme. The fact that the distinction between animate and inanimate is not there does not mean that inanimate things are sentient and cognizant. Option 2 entirely misses the word ‘quantum mechanics. Option 3 goes out because it mentions ‘erroneous assumptions.’ There is no mention of any erroneous assumptions anywhere in the passage. 4 is the best choice.


Question 21:

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

It's not that modern historians of medieval Africa have been ignorant about contacts between Ethiopia and Europe; they just had the power dynamic reversed. The traditional narrative stressed Ethiopia as weak and in trouble in the face of aggression from external forces, so Ethiopia sought military assistance from their fellow Christians to the north. But the real story, buried in plain sight in medieval diplomatic texts, simply had not yet been put together by modern scholars. Recent research pushes scholars of medieval Europe to imagine a much more richly connected medieval world: at the beginning of the so-called Age of Exploration, there is evidence that the kings of Ethiopia were sponsoring their own missions of diplomacy, faith and commerce.

  1. Medieval historical sources selectively promoted the narrative that powerful European forces were called on to protect weak African civilisations such as Ethiopia, but this is far from reality.

  2. Historians were under the illusion that Ethiopia needed military protection from their neighbours, but in fact the country had close commercial and religious connections with them.

  3. Medieval texts have documented how strong connections between the Christian communities of Ethiopia and Europe were invaluable in establishing military and trade links between the two civilisations.

  4. Medieval texts have been 'cherry-picked' to promote a view of Ethiopia as weak and in need of Europe's military help with aggressive neighbours, but recent studies reveal it was a well-connected and outward-looking culture.

Option: 4
Explanation:
Everything is fine with option 1 but it does not mention the reality. It simply says ‘..but this is far from reality’, without mentioning the reality. 1 goes out. Option 2 is factually incorrect because it wrongly says ‘…Ethiopia needed military protection from their neighbors…’. It needed protection from the Europeans, not their neighbors. Option 3 goes out because it fails to mention the traditional narrative about the relations between Ethiopia and Europe. Option 4 is the best choice. To cherry pick means to be selective about what you choose and what you ignore.


Question 22:

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. Fish skin collagen has excellent thermo-stability and tensile strength making it ideal for use as bandage that adheres to the skin and adjusts to body movements.

2. Collagen, one of the main structural proteins in connective tissues in the human body, is well known for promoting skin regeneration.

3. Fish skin swims in here as diseases and bacteria that affect fish are different from most human pathogens.

4. The risk of introducing disease agents into other species through the use of pig and cow collagen proteins for wound healing has inhibited its broader applications in the medical field.

Option: 2431
Explanation:
This is a much more doable question. Sentence 3 says ‘fish skin swims in here…’. To swim in here means to come and fill a gap or fulfil a role. 4 says that because there are risks in collagen proteins derived from pigs and cows, they cannot be used in the medial field. 3 says fish skin swims in here and fills the gap. Thus 43 form a pair. 2 is the opening sentence because it discusses collagen in general talks about its function. Both 3 and 1 talk about fish collagen and form a pair. The right sequence is 2431.


Question 23:

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

Petitioning is an expeditious democratic tradition, used frequently in prior centuries, by which citizens can bring issues directly to governments. As expressions of collective voice, they support procedural democracy by shaping agendas. They can also recruit citizens to causes, give voice to the voteless, and apply the discipline of rhetorical argument that clarifies a point of view. By contrast, elections are limited in several respects: they involve only a few candidates, and thus fall far short of a representative democracy. Further, voters' choices are not specific to particular policies or laws, and elections are episodic, whereas the voice of the people needs to be heard and integrated constantly into democratic government.

  1. By giving citizens greater control over shaping political and democratic agendas, political petitions are invaluable as they represent an ideal form of a representative democracy.

  2. Petitioning has been important to democratic functioning, as it supplements the electoral process by enabling ongoing engagement with the government.

  3. Petitioning is definitely more representative of the collective voice, and the functioning of democratic government could improve if we relied more on petitioning rather than holding periodic elections.

  4. Citizens become less inclined to petitioning as it enables vocal citizens to shape political agendas, but this needs to change to strengthen democracies today.

Option: 2
Explanation:
This question is a little difficult, as it is not easy for us to arrive at the answer. The passage treats petitioning, as an expression of collective voice, as something that is supports procedural democracy (read the second sentence of the paragraph) . Option 1 goes out because it says ‘political petitions give greater control to citizens to shape democratic agendas.’ The point of greater control has not been discussed in the passage. Option 2 has the right focus and the right words. It says that petitioning supplements the electoral process by enabling ongoing engagement with the government. 2 is the best choice. Option 3 also goes out because it says it would be better if we relied more on petitioning rather than holding periodic elections. 4 speaks something that is diametrically opposite to what is given in the passage.


Question 24:

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. The creative element in product design has become of paramount importance as it is one of the few ways a firm or industry can sustain a competitive advantage over its rivals.

2. In fact, the creative element in the value of world industry would be larger still, if we added the contribution of the creative element in other industries, such as the design of tech accessories.

3. The creative industry is receiving a lot of attention today as its growth rate is faster than that of the world economy as a whole.

4. It is for this reason that today's trade issues are increasingly involving intellectual property, as Western countries have an interest in protecting their revenues along with freeing trade in non-tangibles.

Option: 3214
Explanation:
This is a question of moderate difficulty. There is no doubt that sentence 3 is the best start for the paragraph. After 3 we can have 1 or 2 as both talk about the creative element. So, first we talk about the creative industry, then we talk about the creative element. But if we look at 4 we get a better idea of the right sequence. 4 says ‘it is for this reason that today’s trade issues are increasingly involving intellectual property rights’. Why would companies want intellectual property? The answer is because they want competitive advantage over their rivals. Thus 14 form a pair. The right sequence should be 3214. 2 should come after 3 because we should not break the 31 pair and not keep 2 at the end. Its best place is after 3.


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