The original Hellenistic community was idealized, the Greeks' own golden dream—a community never achieved but only imagined by the Macedonian Alexander, who was possessed of the true faith of all converts to a larger vision. The evolving system of city—states had produced not only unity with a healthy diversity but also narrow rivalries. No Hellenic empire arose, only scores of squabbling cities pursuing bitter feuds born of ancient wrongs and existing ambitions. It was civil strife made possible by isolation from the great armies and ambitions of Asia.
Greek history could arguably begin in July of 776 B.C., the First Olympiad, and end with Theodosus's ban on the games in 393 A.D. Before this there had been a long era of two tribes, the Dorians and Ionians, scarcely distinguishable to the alien eye, but distinctly separate in their own eyes until 776. After Theodosus' ban most of the Mediterranean world was Greek—like, in fact, but the central core had been rendered impotent by diffusion.
During the eventful Greek millennium, the Olympics reflected not the high ideals of Hellenes but rather the mean reality of the times. Its founders had created a monster, games that twisted the strategists' aspirations to unity to fit the unpleasant reality of the Hellenistic world. The games not only mirrored the central practices of the Greek world that reformers would deny but also imposed the flaws of that world. Like the atomic theory of the Greek philosophers, the Greek gamers' theories were far removed from reality; they were elegant, consistent, logical, and irrelevant.
Part religious ritual, part game rite, in the five—day Olympic Games, various athletes coming together under the banner of their cities; winning became paramount, imposing defeat a delight. As Greek society evolved, so, too, did the games, but rarely as a unifying force. Athletes supposedly competing for the laurel of accomplishment in the name of idealism found that dried olive leaves changed to gold. Each local polis (city—state) sought not to contribute to the grandeur of Greece, but to achieve its own glory. As in the real world, in the games no Greek could trust another, and each envied rivals' victories. The Olympic spirit was not one of communal bliss but bitter lasting competition institutionalized in games.
Considering the arguments made in the passage, with which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?[A] The Olympics is the oldest organized sporting event in history.
[B] Greece had more internal divisions than other ancient civilizations.
[C] Sporting events sometimes create more problems than they solve.
[D] Alexander was the most successful military leader of ancient Greece.
In the context of the passage, the phrase "dried olive leaves changed to gold " (last paragraph) refers to:[A] the peace achieved by Greek city—states during Olympic years.
[B] the benefits that athletes could expect to derive from Olympic victories.
[C] the political unification of Dorian and Ionian tribes in 776 B.C.
[D] the spread of Greek culture during the period from 776 B.C. to 393 A.D.
For which of the following statements does the passage provide some evidence or united ancient explanation?
I. Alexander Greece through a series of military conquests.
II. The divisions among Greek city—states were reflected in the Olympics.
III. The Olympic Games could not have occurred without a city—state system.[A] II only
[B] III only
[C] I and II
[D] II and III
Suppose that a Greek wrestler had just won the Olympic wrestling contest. Which of the following rewards would he have been LEAST likely to receive?[A] A sense of pleasure in defeating an opponent
[B] A grant of land from his own city—state
[C] A political office in his own city—state
[D] A monetary prize from another city—state
Which of the following, if true, would most STRENGTHEN the author's claims about the Olympic Games in ancient Greece?[A] Contested outcomes of Olympic events sometimes caused wars between city—states.
[B] The Olympic Games began long before Alexander united all of the city—states.
[C] Most city—states regularly applauded the Olympic victories of athletes from other city—states.
[D] Each city—state was only allowed to send one athlete per Olympic event.
The statement: "The Olympic spirit was not one of communal bliss but bitter lasting competition institutionalized in games " (last sentence of last paragraph) indicates that the author believes that:[A] the Greeks were more internally divided than other Mediterranean civilizations.
[B] the Greek millennium was a period of constant warfare.
[C] the Olympic Games did not serve a beneficial national purpose.
[D] the First Olympiad in 776 B.C. began the decline of Greek civilization.