In a poll conducted for a December 4, 1989 cover story in Time magazine entitled "Onward, Women! " the majority of women surveyed (fifty—eight percent) did not consider themselves feminists, though, conversely, a similar majority (sixty—two percent) felt that feminism had been helpful to women. In 1991, the issue of feminism resurfaced in the mainstream media on a broad scale, from the release of the film Thelma & Louise to the publication of such books as Naomi Wolf's The Beauty Myth, Susan Faludi's Backlash, and Gloria Steinem's The Revolution Within: A Book of Self—Esteem, to the attention given to the issue of sexual harassment in the wake of the Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas hearings. Shortly after the Hill/Thomas hearings brought the issue of sexual harassment into the public eye, the music industry was rocked by the announcement of allegations of sexual harassment involving executives at three major record companies and an attorney at a leading L.A. law firm.
Even the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, established in the mid—'80s to recognize the contributions of those involved in the music business, has been criticized for overlooking women's contributions to the industry. Mary Wilson noted this discrepancy in Supreme Faith when she wrote about the Supremes' induction into the Hall of Fame in 1988, and her participation in the all—star jam that traditionally occurs after the ceremonies: "It seemed so symbolic of the record industry, and rock and roll in general, that the only two women on stage were Yoko Ono, there to accept her late husband John Lennon's award [the Beatles were inducted into the Hall of Fame in the same year], and me. " Out of the nearly one—hundred performers, songwriters, label executives, and promoters now in the Hall of Fame, the only female inductees to date are Aretha Franklin and LaVern Baker, inducted as performers, Carole King (with Gerry Goffin), inducted as a non—performer, and Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey, inducted as "Forefathers. "
Though the battle over abortion rights caused women to recognize the underlying fragility of the gains the feminist movement had made, the media focus on other "women's issues " further illuminated the struggles women continued to face in society. A November 3, 1991, story in the Los Angeles Times not only discussed the specific allegations mentioned above regarding sexual harassment, it also examined sexual harassment in the record industry as a whole, and revealed the "put up or shut up " bind women who experience harassment are placed in.
As a result, instead of going through the legal system, women working in the industry have been driven to create an informal grapevine to pass on information about companies deemed "safe havens " from sexual harassment and to warn each other about the "bimbo hounds " in different record company departments. Fred Goodman and Ira Robbins, after discussing the harassment allegations in a "Rockbeat " column in the Village Voice, offered a pungent summary of the lack of respect women receive in the music industry by wryly observing, "We'd be willing to bet a woman will be president of the United States before one runs Sony Music or Warner Bros. Records. "
Since then, the increasing threat to women's reproductive freedom in the U.S. has mobilized growing number of women to reawaken from a state of "post—feminist " complacency. Attitudes toward a female presence in the workplace showed little signs of change in other areas of the music industry. An article in Billboard in March 2, 1991, noted that though almost half the sales positions in radio were held by women, there were far fewer women working in programming or on—air positions. Phyllis Stark, the article's author, made the observation that "Many women say they simply are not taken seriously "—a perception that has a disturbingly familiar ring. In the same article, Lisa Lyons, a program director at Dayton, Ohio station WAZU, related a story about the necessity of "dressing down " (a tactic similar to the one Gail Colson had adopted when she was managing director at Charisma Records in the ?70s) that also sounds depressingly familiar; "I always make it a point to look like a slob. It's a little humiliating and degrading when an artist shakes your MD's [music director's] hand and asks you to sleep with him. "
If given a chance to expand on the points made in the passage in an interview or on a news program, the author might possibly cite all of the following statements as evidence that discrimination towards women exists within the music industry EXCEPT:[A] the lack of qualified female executives heading major record labels.
[B] the minimal effect the physical appearance of women has on their success in the music industry.
[C] the small percentage of female artists inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
[D] the secure job status of the executives and attorney charged in the sexual—harassment case.
For which of the following statements does the passage provide no support or substantiation?[A] Fewer women than men work as radio personalities or music programmers.
[B] Several female executives have been denied promotion to leadership roles within the music industry.
[C] Only two female artists were represented at the 1988 Hall of Fame inductions.
[D] A majority of women feel that feminism has been helpful to women.
Based on the examples provided in the passage, with which of the following assertions is it most likely that the author would disagree?[A] Working women face few pressures to maintain a physically attractive appearance.
[B] Women have often tied the success of the feminist movement to the fight over abortion.
[C] Women working in the music industry are subject to similar obstacles as working women in other fields.
[D] Women working in the music industry have not achieved status commensurate with their contribution to the art.
Each of the following is cited by the author in the passage as evidence of the reawakening of feminism EXCEPT:[A] the release of the film Thelma & Louise.
[B] women's response to the increasing threat of abortion rights.
[C] the induction of the first women into the Hall of Fame.
[D] the publication of Naomi Wolf's The Beauty Myth.
Suppose the number of female executives within the music industry has not increased measurably within the past two decades. If this statement is true, what effect would it have on the author's argument?[A] It would support the argument that women already hold too many positions at the executive level.
[B] It would contradict the argument that men focus on women's physical appearance.
[C] It would support the argument that the number of females inducted into the Hall of Fame will increase rapidly in the coming years.
[D] It would support the argument that women are not moving ahead in sectors such as the music industry.
Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the author's claims about sexual discrimination in the music industry?[A] Several female candidates were passed over for the top job at Charisma Records in the 1970s.
[B] The executives charged with harassment in paragraph one were eventually found not liable for civil damages.
[C] Female artists are often included on ballots for induction into the Hall of Fame.
[D] The level of training and qualification is the same between men and women in the music industry.
The pointed inclusion in the passage of Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey as "Forefathers " indicates that the author believes that:[A] women are slowly beginning to receive their due in the music industry.
[B] women have always had a large, if unacknowledged, role in music history.
[C] women artists are poorly recognized by even the music industry's highest honors.
[D] women had a strong influence on the early development of popular music.