Production and legitimation of scientific knowledge can be approached from a number of perspectives. To study knowledge production from the sociology of professions perspective would mean a focus on the institutionalization of a body of knowledge. The professions-approach informed earlier research on managerial occupation, business schools and management knowledge. It however tends to reify institutional power structures in its understanding of the links between knowledge and authority. Knowledge production is restricted in the perspective to the selected members of the professional community, most notably to the university faculties and professional colleges. Power is understood as a negative mechanism, which prevents the non-professional actors from offering their ideas and information as legitimate knowledge.
|[A]||The study of knowledge production can be done through many perspectives.|
|[B]||Professions-approach aims at the institutionalization of knowledge but restricts knowledge production as a function of a select few.|
|[C]||The professions-approach has been one of the most relied upon perspective in the study of management knowledge production.|
|[D]||Professions-approach focuses on the creation of institutions of higher education and disciplines to promote knowledge production|
Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively low-tech way to make clones. As the name suggests, this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.
|[A]||Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and mimetic of the natural development of genetically identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.|
|[B]||Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech unlike the natural development of identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.|
|[C]||Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and is close to the natural development of twins where the embryo splits into two identical twins.|
|[D]||Artificial embryo twinning is just like the natural development of twins, where during fertilization twins are formed.|
The conceptualization of landscape as a geometric object first occurred in Europe and is historically related to the European conceptualization of the organism, particularly the human body, as a geometric object with parts having a rational, three-dimensional organization and integration. The European idea of landscape appeared before the science of landscape emerged, and it is no coincidence that Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, who studied the structure of the human body, also facilitated an understanding of the structure of landscape. Landscape which had been a subordinate background to religious or historical narratives, became an independent genre or subject of art by the end of sixteenth century or the beginning of the seventeenth century.
|[A]||The Renaissance artists were responsible for the study of landscape as a subject of art.|
|[B]||The three-dimensional understanding of the organism in Europe led to a similar approach towards the understanding of landscape.|
|[C]||The study of landscape as an independent genre was aided by the Renaissance artists.|
|[D]||Landscape became a major subject of art at the turn of the sixteenth century.|
It is only here in England, in her homeland, that Agatha Christie has not been given the respect she deserves. Europeans as eminent as Roland Barthes and Umberto Eco describe her as ‘brilliant’ and ‘extraordinary’ without a blush; Americans as distinguished as Raymond Chandler and Billy Wilder viewed her as one of the most exciting novelists of her time. The king of the self-consciously highbrow French literary scene, Michel Houllebecq, writes a hymn of praise to her in his latest novel, Platform. Yet the English insist on seeing her as fodder for the tourists and perhaps the regions; a writer of elaborate crossword puzzles, not literature.
|[A]||In her homeland, i.e. England, Agatha Christie does not have a reputation as a good writer, but she enjoys considerable popularity around the world.|
|[B]||It is unfortunate that Agatha Christie does not get the credit she deserves in her own homeland (England), whereas the Europeans, the Americans and the French praise her.|
|[C]||While Agatha Christie has not got the recognition she deserves in England, she is a very popular writer among the Europeans (including the French) and Americans.|
|[D]||It is only in England, her homeland, that Agatha Christie is considered an inferior writer, whereas eminent Europeans, Americans and French praise her.|