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CAT Critical Reasoning Practice question with Solution 47

Although nondairy coffee lighteners made with coconut oil contain 2 grams of saturated fat per tablespoon, or 7 times more than does whole milk, those lighteners usually contain no cholesterol. Yet one tablespoon of such lighteners causes the consumers blood cholesterol to rise to a higher level than does an identical amount of whole milk, which contains 2 milligrams of cholesterol per tablespoon.

Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the apparent discrepancy noted above?

[A]. Nutritionists recommend that adults consume as little saturated fat as possible and no more than 250 milligrams of cholesterol a day.
[B]. One gram of saturated fat in food has roughly the same effect on blood cholesterol as 25 milligrams of cholesterol in food.
[C]. Light cream, a dairy product that contains 5 times more cholesterol than does whole milk, is often chosen as a lightener by consumers who normally prefer whole milk.
[D]. Certain nondairy coffee lighteners made without coconut oil contain less saturated fat and less cholesterol than does whole milk.
[E]. The lower the saturated fat content of dairy products, the less cholesterol they usually contain.
Answer: B

The discrepancy: lighteners, which are without cholesterol, raise the blood cholesterol levels of consumers higher than does the milk, which contains 2 milligrams of cholesterol. The key here is that lighteners contain more saturated fat than milk. So we’re looking for a choice that will explain the relationship between saturated fat and cholesterol, with regard to blood cholesterol levels. (B) does just that.

(A) is useless background information. The nutritionists’ recommendation doesn’t explain why a product which doesn’t contain cholesterol, like a lightener, would produce more blood cholesterol than a product like milk, which does contain cholesterol.

(C) adds an irrelevant distinction. Light cream has absolutely no bearing on the issue, which is the relative effects of lighteners with no cholesterol, and milk with cholesterol.

(D) is irrelevant, because it brings up a lightener that doesn’t contain coconut oil. So what if this type of lightener has less fat and cholesterol than milk? It still doesn’t help to resolve the discrepancy involving coconut oil lighteners.

(E) This choice explains the relationship between the fat and cholesterol levels of most dairy products, but it doesn’t address the difference between the two different products that form the basis of the paradox—the non-dairy lightener with high fat, and the dairy product (milk with cholesterol).

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