Direction for Reading Comprehension: The pass ages given here are followed by some questions that have four answer choices; read the passage carefully and pick the option whose answer best aligns with the passage
[There is] a curious new reality: Human contact is becoming a luxury good. As more screens appear in the lives of the poor, screens are disappearing from the lives of the rich. The richer you are, the more you spend to be off-screen. . . .
The joy — at least at first — of the internet revolution was its democratic nature. Facebook is the same Facebook whether you are rich or poor. Gmail is the same Gmail. And it’s all free. There is something mass market and unappealing about that. And as studies show that time on these advertisement-support platforms is unhealthy, it all starts to seem déclassé, like drinking soda or smoking cigarettes, which wealthy people do less than poor people. The wealthy can afford to opt out of having their data and their attention sold as a product. The poor and middle class don’t have the same kind of resources to make that happen.
Screen exposure starts young. And children who spent more than two hours a day looking at a screen got lower scores on thinking and language tests, according to early results of a landmark study on brain development of more than 11,000 children that the National Institutes of Health is supporting. Most disturbingly, the study is finding that the brains of children who spend a lot of time on screens are different. For some kids, there is premature thinning of their cerebral cortex. In adults, one study found an association between screen time and depression. . . .
Tech companies worked hard to get public schools to buy into programs that required schools to have one laptop per student, arguing that it would better prepare children for their screenbased future. But this idea isn’t how the people who actually build the screen-based future raise their own children. In Silicon Valley, time on screens is increasingly seen as unhealthy. Here, the popular elementary school is the local Waldorf School, which promises a back-to nature, nearly screen-free education. So as wealthy kids are growing up with less screen time, poor kids are growing up with more. How comfortable someone is with human engagement could become a new class marker.
Human contact is, of course, not exactly like organic food . . . . But with screen time, there has been a concerted effort on the part of Silicon Valley behemoths to confuse the public. The poor and the middle class are told that screens are good and important for them and their children. There are fleets of psychologists and neuroscientists on staff at big tech companies working to hook eyes and minds to the screen as fast as possible and for as long as possible. And so human contact is rare. . . .
There is a small movement to pass a “right to disconnect” bill, which would allow workers to turn their phones off, but for now a worker can be punished for going offline and not being available. There is also the reality that in our culture of increasing isolation, in which so many of the traditional gathering places and social structures have disappeared, screens are filling a crucial void.
The author is least likely to agree with the view that the increase in screen-time is fuelled by the fact that:
- there is a growth in computer-based teaching in public schools.
- some workers face punitive action if they are not online.
- with falling costs, people are streaming more content on their devices.
- screens provide social contact in an increasingly isolating world.
The author claims that Silicon Valley tech companies have tried to “confuse the public” by:
- promoting screen time in public schools while opting for a screen-free education for their own children.
- pushing for greater privacy while working with advertisement-support platforms to mine data.
- concealing the findings of psychologists and neuroscientists on screen-time use from the public.
- developing new work-efficiency programmes while lobbying for the “right to disconnect” bill.
The statement “The richer you are, the more you spend to be off-screen” is supported by which other line from the passage?
- “Gmail is the same Gmail. And it’s all free.”
- “. . . screens are filling a crucial void.”
- “How comfortable someone is with human engagement could become a new class marker.”
- “. . . studies show that time on these advertisement-support platforms is unhealthy.
Which of the following statements about the negative effects of screen time is the author least likely to endorse?
- It is designed to be addictive.
- It is shown to have adverse effects on young children’s learning.
- It increases human contact as it fills an isolation void.
- It can cause depression in viewers.
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