Scientists recently discovered that Emperor Penguins—one of Antarctica’s most celebrated species—employ a particularly unusual technique for surviving the daily chill. As detailed in an article published today in the journal Biology Letters, the birds minimize heat loss by keeping the outer surface of their plumage below the temperature of the surrounding air. At the same time, the penguins’ thick plumage insulates their body and keeps it toasty. . . .
The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Overall, nearly the entire outer surface of the penguins’ bodies was below freezing at all times, except for their eyes and beaks. The scientists also used a computer simulation to determine how much heat was lost or gained from each part of the body—and discovered that by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them. The key to their trick is the difference between two different types of heat transfer: radiation and convection.
The penguins do lose internal body heat to the surrounding air through thermal radiation, just as our bodies do on a cold day. Because their bodies (but not surface plumage) are warmer than the surrounding air, heat gradually radiates outward over time, moving from a warmer material to a colder one. To maintain body temperature while losing heat, penguins, like all warm-blooded animals, rely on the metabolism of food. The penguins, though, have an additional strategy. Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air). As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.
Most of this heat, the researchers note, probably doesn’t make it all the way through the plumage and back to the penguins’ bodies, but it could make a slight difference. At the very least, the method by which a penguin’s plumage wicks heat from the bitterly cold air that surrounds it helps to cancel out some of the heat that’s radiating from its interior. And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts. . . . Since [penguins trek as far as 75 miles to the coast to breed and male penguins] don’t eat anything during [the incubation period of 64 days], conserving calories by giving up as little heat as possible is absolutely crucial.
In the last sentence of paragraph 3, “slightly warmer air” and “at a slightly colder temperature” refer to ______ AND ______ respectively:
- the air inside penguins’ bodies kept warm because of metabolism of food AND the fall in temperature of the body air after it transfers some heat to the plumage.
- the cold Antarctic air whose temperature is higher than that of the plumage AND the fall in temperature of the Antarctic air after it has transmitted some heat to the plumage.
- the air trapped in the plumage which is warmer than the Antarctic air AND the fall in temperature of the trapped plumage air after it radiates out some heat.
- the cold Antarctic air which becomes warmer because of the heat radiated out from penguins’ bodies AND the fall in temperature of the surrounding air after thermal convection.
As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.
We know the cold Antarctic air’s temperature is higher than that of the plumage, so the slightly warmer has that comes in contact with the plumage has to be the Antarctic air, after all the air is coming from outside (the cold Antarctic air is cycling around their bodies, so the air has to be outside). Both option 1 and 3 talk about air inside the plumage, while the sentence talks about air outside, thus options 1 and 3 go out.
We are left with 4 and 2. Option 4 goes out because the cold Antarctic air is already warmer than the penguins’ plumage. The cold Antarctic air is not becoming warmer because of the heat radiated from the penguins’ bodies. Thus option 4 goes out. Option 2 is the best choice and the right answer
Which of the following best explains the purpose of the word “paradoxically” as used by the author?
- Keeping a part of their body colder helps penguins keep their bodies warmer.
- Heat loss through radiation happens despite the heat gain through convection.
- Keeping their body colder helps penguins keep their plumage warmer.
- Heat gain through radiation happens despite the heat loss through convection.
The passage says: “…by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them…”
Isn’t it a paradox that by keeping your outer surface cold, you are trying to draw slight amounts of heat from the air around your body…Option 1 precisely says that.
You should always try to find the answers from the context. If the author has used the term ‘paradoxically’ with respect to outer surface temperature and drawing heat from the air around them, then the right answer must also have the same context. None, except 1, have this context.
Which of the following can be responsible for Emperor Penguins losing body heat?
- Reproduction process.
- Thermal convection.
- Food metabolism.
Choice 1 can be inferred from the following lines of the passage: “And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts...”. This suggests that the reproduction process results in heat loss.
All of the following, if true, would negate the findings of the study reported in the passage EXCEPT:
- the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study were –10 degrees Fahrenheit.
- the average temperature of the feet of penguins in the month of June 2008 were found to be 2.76 degrees Fahrenheit.
- the temperature of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs were found to be 1.84, 7.24 and 9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively.
- the penguins’ plumage were made of a material that did not allow any heat transfer through convection or radiation.
Since we have to mark the option that is not invalidating the author’s argument, we can safely rule out choice 1 because it is weakening the author’s argument.
The plumage has to be colder than the outer Antarctic air, but in choice 3 the plumage is warmer than the outer Antarctic air, so this too would weaken the author’s argument in the passage.
Take choice 4; thermal convection helps the penguins get some heat, if the plumage is not allowing thermal convection to take place, there would be no gain of warmth, thus this too weakens the argument.
Only option 2 does not weaken the argument. The passage says that the feet is warmest part of the body, if you make it a little more warmer, it will still remain the warmest part of the body. Thus 2 is not weakening the argument in any way.
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